1997-99: Kaltjiti/Fregon (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids, Nitrate

Kaltjiti (Fregon) Total Dissolved Solids

1997-1999: Kaltjiti (Fregon) – Total Dissolved Solids

The salinity of these groundwaters ranges from 1050 to 1820 mg/L TDS with nitrate concentrations of 37-50 mg/L and fluoride concentrations of 1.3-1.4 mg/L. This water is deemed unacceptable in terms of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (1996) and poor to unacceptable according to WHO Guidelines (1993).

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.


Excessive nitrates in the diet reduce blood’s ability to carry oxygen. In infants, this can cause the potentially life-threatening Blue Baby Syndrome, where the skin takes on a bluish colour and the child has trouble breathing. Housing provides bottled water for infants under three months in communities with high nitrates. Long term solutions would likely include asset replacements or upgrades or finding new water sources, or a combination of these.

Child Heath Levels Nitrate: 50mg/L. Adult Heath Levels Nitrate: 100mg/L