2012-2016: Indulkana (South Australia) – Lead, Nickel, Chloride, Iron, Sodium, Sulphate, Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness

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Indulkana (South Australia) Lead

20 August 2012 – Indulkana (South Australia) – Lead 0.0135mg/L

19 September 2012 – Indulkana TS Drinking Water (South Australia) – Lead 0.1276mg/L

19 August 2013 – Indulkana (South Australia) – Lead 0.0122mg/L

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011

Indulkana (South Australia) Nickel

20 August 2012: Indulkana (South Australia) 0.0406mg/L

Nickel: ADWG Health Guideline 0.02mg/L. A chemical element and silvery white corrosion resistant metal with a golden tinge. 60% of nickel production is used in nickel steel (particularly stainless steel). In water, mainly a problem with nickel plated fittings. Main releases to the environment are from the burning of fossil fuels and in waste discharges from electroplating industries.

Indulkana (South Australia) – Chloride

20 August 2012: Indulkana (South Australia) Chloride 622mg/L

20 August 2012: Indulkana (South Australia) Chloride 330mg/L (TS Drinking Water)

26 March 2015: Indulkana (South Australia) Chloride 580mg/L

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Indulkana (South Australia) – Iron

19 August 2013: Indulkana (South Australia) Iron 0.6744mg/L

19 August 2013: Indulkana (South Australia) Iron 0.5531mg/L

26 March 2015: Indulkana (South Australia) Iron 0.3001mg/L

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

2016/17 – Indulkana – Sodium

19 August 2013: Indulkana (South Australia) – Sodium 340mg/L

19 August 2013: Indulkana TS Drinking Water (South Australia) – Sodium 186mg/L

5 August 2014: Indulkana (South Australia) – Sodium 382mg/L

10 August 2015: Indulkana (South Australia) – Sodium 327mg/L

22 November 2016: Indulkana (South Australia) – Sodium 361mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

2012 – Indulkana (South Australia) – Sulphate

20 August 2012: Indulkana  Sulphate 237mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sulfate in drinking water
should not exceed 250 mg/L. Purgative effects may occur if the concentration exceeds 500 mg/L.

Sulfate occurs naturally in a number of minerals, and is used commercially in the manufacture of numerous products including chemicals, dyes, glass, paper, soaps, textiles, fungicides and insecticides. Sulfate, including sulfuric acid, is also used in mining, pulping, and the metal and plating industries. Barium sulfate is used as a lubricant in drilling rigs for groundwater supply.
In the water industry, aluminium sulfate (alum) is used as a flocculant in water treatment, and copper sulfate is used for the control of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in water storages.
The highest concentrations reported in drinking water overseas are from groundwater supplies where the presence of sulfate is due to natural leaching from rocks. Concentrations have been reported up to 2200 mg/L. In source waters, concentrations are typically less than 100 mg/L.
The taste threshold for sulfate is in the range 250–500 mg/L.” ADWG 2011

2012/16 – Indulkana (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids

August 2012 – November 2016: 1500mg/L (average from 6 detections. All Above ADWG)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

2016/17 – Indulkana (South Australia) – Hardness

2012/16: Indulkana (South Australia) – Hardness average 433.3mg/L (5 detections out of 6 above guideline)

2012/16: Indulkana TS Drinking Water (South Australia) – Hardness average 184.6mg/L (2 detections out of 5 above guideline)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”