2020/23: Salisbury Plain (South Australia) Antimony, Bromodichloromethane, Chloropicrin

Salisbury Plain (South Australia) – Antimony

14/6/20: Salisbury Plain Antimony  0.0025mg/L.

Based on health considerations, the concentration of antimony in drinking water should not
exceed the limit of determination of 0.003 mg/L.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Antimony, as the trivalent (Sb(III)) or pentavalent (Sb(V)) salts, has occasionally been detected in
natural source waters. Occurrences are more common in areas near lead or copper smelting operations.
Antimony–tin solder is beginning to replace lead solder and hence exposure to antimony in drinking water may increase in the future.
Antimony alloys and compounds are used in semiconductors, batteries, anti-friction compounds, ammunition, cable sheathing, and flame-proofing compounds. Antimony salts are used in glass, and in the manufacture of ceramics and pottery.
Studies overseas have generally found low concentrations in drinking water, typically less than
0.005 mg/L, but higher concentrations have been reported occasionally.
There are few data available on antimony concentrations in food. The United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has suggested that average daily consumption of antimony in food is about 0.018 mg.

Salisbury Plain (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane

9/9/21: Salisbury Plain (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 60ug/L (max), 37.25ug/L (av. 2021/22)

2022/23: Salisbury Plain (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 74ug/L (max), 52.25ug/L (av.)

WHO Guideline level BDCM: 60ug/L (Australian Guideline for BDCM is included in the Trihalomethane (THM) combined total of BDCM, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Bromoform. THM guideline is 250ug/L)

“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).

2022/23 Salisbury Plain (South Australia) Chloropicrin

2022/23: Salisbury Plain (South Australia) Chloropicrin 1ug/L (max), 0.5ug/L (av.)

No Guideline level for Chloropicrin

Chloropicrin is formed in water by the reaction of chlorine with humic acids, amino acids,
and nitrophenols. The presence of nitrates increases the amount formed (6). Chloropicrin has
been detected in drinking-water; however, in the presence of reducing agents, it is converted
into chloroform