2000/17: Goolwa (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes, Chloral Hydrate

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Goolwa (South Australia)

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

28/11/2001 Goolwa Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 250 ug/L

24/04/2002  Goolwa Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 287 ug/L

24/07/2002  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 317 ug/L

29/01/2003  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

30/04/2003  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 256 ug/L

28/11/2003  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 267 ug/L

29/04/2004  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 258 ug/L

28/04/2005  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 270 ug/L

15/03/2007  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 257 ug/L

7/06/2007  Goolwa Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 262 ug/L

5/06/2008  Goolwa Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 265 ug/L

16/04/2009  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 250 ug/L

6/08/2009  Goolwa Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 250 ug/L

15/04/2010  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

20/01/2011  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 258 ug/L

4/08/2011  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 254 ug/L

10/11/2011  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 263 ug/L

19/01/2012  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 265 ug/L

12/04/2012  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 289 ug/L

14/03/2013  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 254 ug/L

11/04/2013  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 260 ug/L

9/05/2013  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

8/08/2013  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 270 ug/L

23/01/2014  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 277 ug/L

20/02/2014  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 281 ug/L

18/03/2014  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 287 ug/L

15/04/2014  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 276 ug/L

13/05/2014  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

12/06/2014  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 279 ug/L

3/09/2015  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

21/12/2015  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 296 ug/L

18/03/2016  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 291 ug/L

14/04/2016  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 275 ug/L

12/05/2016  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 288 ug/L

9/06/2016  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 274 ug/L

7/07/2016  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 269 ug/L

4/08/2016  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 263 ug/L

16/09/2016  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 257 ug/L

19/01/2017  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 287 ug/L

16/02/2017  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 283 ug/L

16/03/2017  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 290 ug/L

13/04/2017  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 296 ug/L

12/05/2017  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 284 ug/L

8/06/2017  Goolwa  Cadell St Trihalomethanes – Total 264 ug/L

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm

Goolwa (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

13/9/00 Goolwa  Chloral Hydrate 42.5ug/L

27/8/09 Goolwa  Chloral Hydrate 20.3ug/L

21/1/10 Goolwa  Chloral Hydrate 20.8ug/L

5/8/10 Goolwa  Chloral Hydrate 21.4ug/L

28/10/10 Goolwa  Chloral Hydrate 21.7ug/L

4/8/11 Goolwa  Chloral Hydrate 22.1ug/L

27/10/11 Goolwa  Chloral Hydrate 25.8ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L