2000/05 + 2018/21: Warooka (South Australia). E.coli, Cadmium, Selenium, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness

Warooka (South Australia) – E.coli.

Warooka 20/12/21 E.coli 17 cfu/100mL

Warooka 15/11/21 E.coli 2 cfu/100mL


“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Warooka (South Australia) – Cadmium, Selenium

Highest SA Water Cadmium Detection: 2000-12: 0.0033mg/L 12/12/01 and 0.0031mg/L 14/2/05 at Warooka.


13/12/04 Warooka Cadmium 0.0021mg/L
10/1/05 Warooka Cadmium 0.0023mg/L

ADWG Cadmium Guideline. 0.002mg/L. The primary route of exposure of cadmium is via contaminated water or food. Fertiliser can be a source of excessive cadmium as can rainwater tanks. It has been linked to cancer, lung disorders, kidney disease and autoimmune disease.

Highest Level SA Water 2000-12: 13/03/2000 Warooka 0.015 mg/L, 11/9/00 Warooka 0.013mg/L.

Selenium: ADWG Guideline 0.01mg/L. An element and non-metal mainly found in sulphide ores such as pyrite. 50% of selenium used in the world, is for glass production. “Selenium and selenium salts are widespread in the environment. Selenium is released from natural and human-made sources, with the main source being the burning of coal. Selenium is also a by-product of the processing of sulfide ores, chiefly in the copper refining industry. The major use of selenium is in the manufacture of electronic components. It is used in several other industries, and selenium compounds are used in some insecticides, in hair shampoos as an anti-dandruff agent, and as a nutritional feed additive for poultry and livestock.” ADWG 2011

Warooka (South Australia) – pH (alkaline)

2018/19: Warooka (South Australia) – Brentwood Road pH 9.053 (av)

2018/19: Warooka (South Australia) – White Hut Road/Reo Road pH 9.193 (av)

2019/20: Warooka (Brentwood Road) pH (average) 9.29pH units

2019/20: Warooka (White Hut Road) pH (average) 9.21pH units

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.

Warooka (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids

2018/19: Warooka (South Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 740mg/L (max), 740mg/L (av)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Warooka (South Australia) – Hardness

2018/19: Warooka (South Australia) Hardness as CaCO3 338mg/L (max), 338mg/L (mean)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011