2006/17 – Bunbidee/Pigeon Hole (Northern Territory) – E.coli, Turbidity, Iron, Hardness

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Bunbidee/Pigeon Hole – E.coli

2013/14: Pigeon Hole Ecoli. 1 e.coli detection. 98% compliance

2015/16: Bunbidee E.coli 3 detections. 92% compliance


Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG

Bunbidee/Pigeon Hole (Northern Territory) – Turbidity

2015/16: Bunbidee Turbidity 7.1NTU

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.

Bunbidee/Pigeon Hole (Northern Territory) Iron

2007/08: Bunbidee/Pigeon Hole Iron 0.41mg/L

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Bunbidee/Pigeon Hole (Northern Territory) Hardness

2007/08: Pigeon Hole Hardness 308mg/L

2009/10: Bunbidee Hardness 312mg/L

2010/11: Bunbidee Hardness 312mg/L

2013/14: Bunbidee Hardness 285mg/L

2015/16: Bunbidee Hardness 275mg/L

2016/17: Pigeon Hole Hardness 333mg/L


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”