2006/22 – Ikuntji/Haasts Bluff (Northern Territory) – E.coli, Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Iodine, Chloride, Sulfate

Ikuntji/Haasts Bluff – E.coli

2010/11: Ikuntji (Haasts Bluff) Ecoli. 2 detections. 94% E.coli performance for year


Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG

Ikuntji/Haasts Bluff – Northern Territory – Hardness

2007/08: Haasts Bluff Hardness 564mg/L

2008/09 Ikuntji Hardness 578mg/L

2009/10: Ikuntji Hardness 576mg/L

2010/11: Ikuntji Hardness 578mg/L

2013/14: Ikuntji Hardness 582mg/L

2015/16: Ikuntji Hardness 608mg/L

2016/17: Ikunjti Hardness 593mg/L

2021/22: Ikuntji Hardness 600mg/L (av.)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Ikuntji/Haasts Bluff – Northern Territory – Total Dissolved Solids

2007/08: Haasts Bluff Total Dissolved Solids 1250mg/L

2008/09: Ikuntji Total Dissolved Solids 1293mg/L

2010/11: Ikuntji Total Dissolved Solids 1275mg/L

2013/14: Ikuntji Total Dissolved Solids 1263mg/L

2015/16: Ikuntji Total Dissolved Solids 1200mg/L

2016/17: Ikuntji Total Dissolved Solids 1213mg/L

2021/22: Ikuntji Total Dissolved Solids 1200mg/L


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Ikuntji/Haasts Bluff – (Northern Territory) – Iodine

2007/08: Hassts Bluff Iodine 0.3mg/L

2008/09: Ikuntji Iodine 0.23mg/L

2009/10: Ikuntji Iodine 0.26mg/L

2010/11: Ikuntji Iodine 0.24mg/L

2013/14: Ikuntji Iodine 0.24mg/L

2015/16: Ikuntji Iodine 0.22mg/L

Iodide: Based on health considerations, the concentration of iodide in drinking water should
not exceed 0.5 mg/L.
Iodine: No guideline value has been set for molecular iodine.
The element iodine is present naturally in seawater, nitrate minerals and seaweed, mostly in the form of iodide salts. It may be present in water due to leaching from salt and mineral deposits. Iodide can be oxidised to molecular iodine with strong disinfectants such as chlorine.
Molecular iodine solutions are used as antiseptics and as sanitising agents in hospitals and laboratories.
Iodine is occasionally used for the emergency disinfection of water for field use but is not used for disinfecting larger drinking water supplies. Iodide is used in pharmaceutical and photographic materials. Iodine has a taste threshold in water of about 0.15 mg/L.
Iodide occurs in cows’ milk and seafood. Some countries add iodide to table salt to compensate for iodide-deficient diets.

Ikuntji/Haasts Bluff (Victoria) – Chloride

2007/08: Haasts Bluff Chloride 343mg/L

2008/09 Ikuntji Chloride 359mg/L

2009/10: Ikuntji Chloride 372mg/L

2010/11: Ikuntji Chloride 367mg/L

2013/14: Ikuntji Chloride 371mg/L

2015/16: Ikuntji Chloride 384mg/L

2016/17: Ikuntji Chloride 387mg/L

2021/22: Ikuntji Chloride 360mg/L

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Ikuntji/Haasts Bluff (Northern Territory) – Sulfate

2009/10: Ikuntji Sulfate 256mg/L

2010/11: Ikuntji Sulfate 258mg/L

2013/14: Ikuntji Sulfate 259mg/L

2015/16: Ikuntji Sulfate 252.9mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sulfate in drinking water
should not exceed 250 mg/L. Purgative effects may occur if the concentration exceeds 500 mg/L.

Sulfate occurs naturally in a number of minerals, and is used commercially in the manufacture of numerous products including chemicals, dyes, glass, paper, soaps, textiles, fungicides and insecticides. Sulfate, including sulfuric acid, is also used in mining, pulping, and the metal and plating industries. Barium sulfate is used as a lubricant in drilling rigs for groundwater supply.
In the water industry, aluminium sulfate (alum) is used as a flocculant in water treatment, and copper sulfate is used for the control of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in water storages.
The highest concentrations reported in drinking water overseas are from groundwater supplies where the presence of sulfate is due to natural leaching from rocks. Concentrations have been reported up to 2200 mg/L. In source waters, concentrations are typically less than 100 mg/L.
The taste threshold for sulfate is in the range 250–500 mg/L.” ADWG 2011