2006/17 – Titjikala (Northern Territory) – E.coli, Hardness, Turbidity

Titjikala (Northern Territory) – E.coli

2006/07: Titjikala Ecoli. 2 samples exceeding trigger levels. 95.8% of samples within trigger level

2009/10: Titjikala E.coli 1 detection. 97% compliance during year

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Titjikala – Northern Territory – Hardness

2007/09: Titjikala Hardness 239mg/L

2008/09: Titjikala Hardness 239mg/L

2009/10: Titjikala Hardness 202mg/L

2010/11: Titjikala Hardness 213mg/L

2013/14: Titjikala Hardness 221mg/L

2015/16: Titjikala Hardness 201mg/L

2016/17: Titjikala Hardness 229mg/L


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Titjikala (Northern Territory) – Turbidity

2015/16: Titjikala Turbidity 6.9NTU

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.