2005/7 + 2011/21: Port Fairy (Victoria). Legionella Sp., Lead, Turbidity, Iron, Colour, Ammonia, Chloride, Sodium, Total Dissolved Solids, Manganese, Radioactivity

15 October 2015: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Legionella Sp.

Port Fairy cooling tower. Legionella Sp., Super-chlorinated both cooling towers and low level tanks.

Port Fairy (Victoria) – Lead

The highest recorded lead level 2005-11 in Victoria was recorded in the central Victorian community of Koriot 0.094mg/L (Wannon Water 2006/7), Gordon Lead 0.065mg/L (Central Highlands Water 8 October 2008), Camperdown 0.049mg/L (2006/7), Port Fairy 0.047mg/L (2006/7), Warrnambool 0.036mg/L (2005/6). The highest Melbourne level was recorded in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne at Mitcham 2007/8 at 0.028mg/L.

The Australian Drinking Water Guideline for Lead is 0.01mg/L

Port Fairy – Victoria – Turbidity

2011/12: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Turbidity 6 NTU (Maximum detection during year)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.

Port Fairy – Victoria – Iron

2011/12: Port Fairy (Victoria)  – Iron 0.48mg/L (Highest level only)

2012/13: Port Fairy (Victoria)  – Iron 5.8mg/L (Highest level only)

2013/14: Port Fairy (Victoria)  – Iron 0.99mg/L (Highest level only)

2014/15: Port Fairy (Victoria)  – Iron 1.5mg/L (Highest level only)

2015/16: Port Fairy (Victoria)  – Iron 0.35mg/L (Highest level only)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Port Fairy  (Victoria) – Colour

2011/12: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Colour Apparent 25 HU (Highest Level Only)

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…

Port Fairy (Victoria) – Ammonia

2011/12: Port Fairy (Victoria)  – Ammonia 0.59mg/L (Highest level only – Ammonia as N)

Based on aesthetic considerations (corrosion of copper pipes and fittings), the concentration
of ammonia (measured as ammonia) in drinking water should not exceed 0.5 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value is set for ammonia. (0.41mg/L mg of Ammonia as N)

“…Most uncontaminated source waters have ammonia concentrations below 0.2 mg/L. High concentrations (greater than 10 mg/L) have been reported where water is contaminated with animal waste. Ammonia is unlikely to be detected in chlorinated supplies as it reacts quickly with free chlorine. Ammonia in water can result in the corrosion of copper pipes and fittings, causing copper stains on sanitary ware. It is also a food source for some microorganisms, and can support nuisance growths of bacteria and algae, often with a resultant increase in the nitrite concentration.” ADWG 2011

Port Fairy (Victoria) – Chloride

2011/12: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Chloride 350mg/L (Highest Detection)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Port Fairy (Victoria) – Sodium

2011/12:  Port Fairy (Victoria) Sodium 430mg/L (Highest Level Only)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Port Fairy – Victoria – Total Dissolved Solids

2011/12: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 900mg/L (Maximum Level)

2012/13: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 910mg/L (Maximum Level)

2013/14: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 930mg/L (Maximum Level)

2015/16: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 930mg/L (Maximum Level)

2017/18: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 920mg/L (Maximum Level)

2018/19: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 910mg/L (Maximum Level)

2019/20: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 705mg/L (Maximum Level)

2020/21: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 930mg/L (Maximum Level)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Port Fairy – Victoria – Manganese

2012/13: Port Fairy (Victoria) – Manganese 0.54mg/L (highest level)

Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbling fixtures and laundry.

Port Fairy – Victoria – Radioactivity

2005/6: “Elevated Gross Beta activity was measured in the Port Fairy water supply. The main source of Gross Beta activity is Radium-226, which is naturally occurring isotope in the source water, which is deep aquifer groundwater. During the reporting period the level of Gross Beta fluctuated around the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (2004) limit of 0.5 Bq/L. The significance of this elevated Gross Beta activity is not currently known, and further investigations are being undertaken.” Victorian Drinking Water Quality 2005/6