2007/09 + 2017/23: Buxton (Victoria) – Chloral Hydrate, Trichloroacetic Acid, Dichloroacetic Acid

Buxton (Victoria) – Chloral Hydrate

Buxton: 2019/20: 830ug/L (0.83mg/L) (max), 0.077mg/L (av). Highest level recorded in Australia.

“There were 3 individual results for trichloraecetaldehyde (chloral hydrate) that did not meet the drinking water quality standards during the 2019-20 reporting period in Buxton, Colbinabbin and Nagambie. These were reported to DHHS in line with Section 18 of the Safe Drinking Water Act 2003.” Goulburn Valley Water 2019/20

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

“Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate has only been detected by Goulburn Valley Water since changing to a new contract testing laboratory in November 2007. The Department of Health is currently conducting a study into the detection of chloral hydrate across Victoria.”

Buxton (Victoria) – Chloroacetic Acids

2008/9: Buxton 0.180mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Level)

2008/9: Buxton 0.120mg/L Dichloroacetic Acid (Highest Level)

2007/8: Buxton 0.250mg/L  Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Level)

2017/18: Buxton 0.130mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Level)

2020/21 Buxton 0.096mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (max), 0.022mg/L (av.)

2022/23: Buxton 0.120mg/L Dichloroacetic Acid (0.051mg/L) (av.)

2022/23: Buxton 0.140mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (0.065mg/L) (av.)

(Australian Guideline Dichloroacetic Acid:  0.100mg/L, Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L)

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

There are no epidemiological studies of TCA carcinogenicity in humans. Most of the human health data for chlorinated acetic acids concern components of complex mixtures of water disinfectant by-products. These complex mixtures of disinfectant by-products have been associated with increased potential for bladder, rectal, and colon cancer in humans [reviewed by Boorman et al. (1999); Mills et al. (1998)].” Ref: tmp/Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) CASRN 76-03-9 IRIS US EPA.htm