2007/10 + 2020/23: Upper Delatite (Victoria) – Chloral Hydrate, Trichloroacetic Acid, Dichloroacetic Acid, Total Dissolved Solids

Upper Delatite (Victoria) – Chloroacetic Acids

2008/09: Upper Delatite Trichloroacetic Acid 0.150mg/L (Highest Detection)

2007/8: Upper Delatite Trichloroacetic Acid 0.250mg/L (Highest Detection)

2007/8: Upper Delatite Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L (Highest Detection)

Australian Guideline Level: Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

There are no epidemiological studies of TCA carcinogenicity in humans. Most of the human health data for chlorinated acetic acids concern components of complex mixtures of water disinfectant by-products. These complex mixtures of disinfectant by-products have been associated with increased potential for bladder, rectal, and colon cancer in humans [reviewed by Boorman et al. (1999); Mills et al. (1998)].” Ref: tmp/Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) CASRN 76-03-9 IRIS US EPA.htm

Upper Delatite (Victoria) – Chloral Hydrate

2009/10: Upper Delatite 27ug/L Chloral Hydrate

2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

“Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate has only been detected by Goulburn Valley Water since changing to a new contract testing laboratory in November 2007. The Department of Health is currently conducting a study into the detection of chloral hydrate across Victoria.”

Upper Delatite (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids/Electrical Conductivity

2022/23: Upper Delatite (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids/Electrical conductivity 1100mg/L (μS/cm) (max). 1 non-complying sample. (From the 1st April 2017, EC monitoring at Katunga and Pyalong was increased to weekly due to historical high levels in EC. In addition, weekly monitoring at Upper Delatite occurs because of risk of salt from artificial snow melt)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011