Alpurrurulam (Northern Territory) – Fluoride
2007/08: Alpurrurulam Fluoride 1.6mg/L
2008/09: Alpurrurulam Fluoride 1.57mg/L
2009/10: Alpurrurulam Fluoride 1.5mg/L
2010/11: Alpurrurulam Fluoride 1.5mg/L
2013/14: Alpurruralam Fluoride 1.5mg/L
2015/16: Alpurruralam Fluoride 1.6mg/L
2016/17: Alpurruralam Fluoride 1.8mg/L
“Fluoride occurs naturally in seawater (1.4 mg/L), soil (up to 300 parts per million) and air (from volcanic gases and industrial pollution). Naturally occurring fluoride concentrations in drinking water depend on the type of soil and rock through which the water drains. Generally, concentrations in surface water are relatively low (<0.1–0.5 mg/L), while water from deeper wells may have quite high concentrations (1–10 mg/L) if the rock formations are fluoride-rich.” 2011 ADWG. Health Guideline: 1.5mg/L
Alpurrurulam – Northern Territory – Hardness
2007/08: Alpurrurlam Hardness 503mg/L
2008/09: Alpurrurulam Hardness 497mg/L
2009/10: Alpurrurulam Hardness 438mg/L
2010/11: Alpurrurulam Hardness 461mg/L
2013/14: Alpurrurulam Hardness 459mg/L
2015/16: Alpurrurulam Hardness 471mg/L
2016/17: Alpurrurulam Hardness 485mg/L
“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.
Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”
Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011
Alpurrurulam – Northern Territory – Total Dissolved Solids
2007/08: Alpurruralam Total Dissolved Solids 908mg/L
2010/11: Alpurrurulam Total Dissolved Solids 924mg/L
2013/14: Alpurrurulam Total Dissolved Solids 921mg/L
2015/16: Alpurrurulam Total Dissolved Solids 902mg/L
2016/17: Alpurruralam Total Dissolved Solids 887mg/L
“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.
Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.
Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011
Alpurrurulam – (Northern Territory) – Iodine
2007/08: Alpurrurulum Iodine 0.2mg/L
2008/09: Alpurrurulum Iodine 0.175mg/L
2009/10: Alpurrurulam Iodine 0.17mg/L
2010/11: Alpurrurulam Iodine 0.18mg/L
2013/14: Alpurrurulam Iodine 0.16mg/L
Iodide: Based on health considerations, the concentration of iodide in drinking water should
not exceed 0.5 mg/L.
Iodine: No guideline value has been set for molecular iodine.
The element iodine is present naturally in seawater, nitrate minerals and seaweed, mostly in the form of iodide salts. It may be present in water due to leaching from salt and mineral deposits. Iodide can be oxidised to molecular iodine with strong disinfectants such as chlorine.
Molecular iodine solutions are used as antiseptics and as sanitising agents in hospitals and laboratories.
Iodine is occasionally used for the emergency disinfection of water for ﬁeld use but is not used for disinfecting larger drinking water supplies. Iodide is used in pharmaceutical and photographic materials. Iodine has a taste threshold in water of about 0.15 mg/L.
Iodide occurs in cows’ milk and seafood. Some countries add iodide to table salt to compensate for iodide-deﬁcient diets.