2007/17 – Amanbidji (Northern Territory) – Lead, Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Sodium, Sulfate

Amanbidji (Northern Territory) Lead

2016/17 – Amanbidji (Northern Territory) – Lead 0.01mg/L

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011

Amanbidji (Northern Territory) Hardness

2007/08: Amanbidji Hardness 379mg/L

2008/09: Amanbidji Hardness 405mg/L

2009/10: Amanbidji Hardness 381mg/L

2010/11: Amanbidji Hardness 381mg/L

2013/14: Amanbidji Hardness 373mg/L

2015/16: Amanbidji Hardness 373mg/L

2016/17: Amanbidji Hardness 400mg/L


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Amanbidji (Northern Territory) Total Dissolved Solids

2007/08: Amanbidji Total Dissolved Solids 1133mg/L

2008/09: Amanbidji Total Dissolved Solids 1003mg/L

2010/11 Amanbidji Total Dissolved Solids 917mg/L

2013/14: Amanbidji Total Dissolved Solids 885mg/L

2016/17: Amanbidji Total Dissolved Solids 843mg/L


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

 Amanbidji (Northern Territory) – Sodium

2007/08: Amanbidji Sodium 258mg/L

2008/09: Amanbidji Sodium 213mg/L

2010/11: Amanbidji Sodium 190mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Amanbidji (Northern Territory) – Sulfate

2007/08: Amanbidji Sulfate 291mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sulfate in drinking water
should not exceed 250 mg/L. Purgative effects may occur if the concentration exceeds 500 mg/L.

Sulfate occurs naturally in a number of minerals, and is used commercially in the manufacture of numerous products including chemicals, dyes, glass, paper, soaps, textiles, fungicides and insecticides. Sulfate, including sulfuric acid, is also used in mining, pulping, and the metal and plating industries. Barium sulfate is used as a lubricant in drilling rigs for groundwater supply.
In the water industry, aluminium sulfate (alum) is used as a flocculant in water treatment, and copper sulfate is used for the control of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in water storages.
The highest concentrations reported in drinking water overseas are from groundwater supplies where the presence of sulfate is due to natural leaching from rocks. Concentrations have been reported up to 2200 mg/L. In source waters, concentrations are typically less than 100 mg/L.
The taste threshold for sulfate is in the range 250–500 mg/L.” ADWG 2011