2007/18 – Guilderton (Western Australia) – Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, Sodium, Nitrate

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Guilderton – Western Australia – Hardness

2007/08: Guilderton (Western Australia) – Hardness 302mg/L (max)

2008/09: Guilderton (Western Australia) – Hardness 330mg/L (max), 302mg/L (mean)

2009/10: Guilderton (Western Australia) – Hardness 330mg/L (max)

2010/11 Guilderton (Western Australia) Hardness 310mg/L (max), 290mg/L (av)

2011/12 Guilderton (Western Australia) Hardness 310mg/L (max), 283mg/L (av)

2013/14 Guilderton (Western Australia) Hardness 340mg/L (max), 330mg/L (av)

2014/15 Guilderton (Western Australia) Hardness 310mg/L (max), 303mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Guilderton (Western Australia) Hardness 330mg/L (max), 306mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Guilderton (Western Australia) Hardness 320mg/L (max), 300mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Guilderton (Western Australia) Hardness 330mg/L (max), 320mg/L (mean)

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Guilderton – Western Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

2008/09: Guilderton (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 1080mg/L (max), 932mg/L (mean)

2009/10: Guilderton (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 1104mg/L (max)

2010/11 Guilderton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 906mg/L (max), 858mg/L (av)

2011/12 Guilderton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 961mg/L (max), 834mg/L (av)

2013/14 Guilderton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1112mg/L (max), 1095mg/L (av)

2014/15 Guilderton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 990mg/L (max), 953mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Guilderton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1074mg/L (max), 981mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Guilderton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 984mg/L (max), 930mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Guilderton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 961mg/L (max), 947mg/L (mean)

GUIDELINE

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Guilderton (Western Australia) – Chloride

2013/14 Guilderton (Western Australia) Chloride 410mg/L (max), 405mg/L (av)

2014/15 Guilderton (Western Australia) Chloride 365mg/L (max), 338mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Guilderton (Western Australia) Chloride 390mg/L (max), 347mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Guilderton (Western Australia) Chloride 345mg/L (max), 323mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Guilderton (Western Australia) Chloride 335mg/L (max), 325mg/L (av)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Guilderton (Western Australia) – Sodium

2013/14 Guilderton (Western Australia) Sodium  225mg/L (max), 225mg/L (av)

2014/15 Guilderton (Western Australia) Sodium 195mg/L (max), 182mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Guilderton (Western Australia) Sodium 220mg/L (max), 197mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Guilderton (Western Australia) Sodium 200mg/L (max), 180mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Guilderton (Western Australia) Sodium 185mg/L (max), 180mg/L (av)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Guilderton (Western Australia) – Nitrate

2016/17 Guilderton (Western Australia) Nitrate 40.22mg/L (max), 35.8mg/L av

Nitrate: ADWG Guideline 50mg/L. Nitrate is the product of oxygenated nitrogen created from the breakdown of organic matter; lightning strikes; inorganic pesticides; or explosives. The Australian Drinking Water Guidelines recommend that nitrate levels between 50-100mg/L are a health consideration for infants less than three months, although levels up to 100mg/L can be safely consumed by adults. Mainly a problem in Northern Territory and some communities in Western Australia.