2007/20 – Kendenup (Western Australia) – E.coli, Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity, Iron

Kenendup (Western Australia) – E.coli

2013/14 Kendenup (Western Australia) E.coli 1 / 6 samples positive. 1 cfu/100mL

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Kendenup – Western Australia – Hardness

2007/08: Kendenup (Western Australia) – Hardness 268mg/L (Highest Detection Only)

2008/09: Kendenup (Western Australia) – Hardness 270mg/L (max), 267mg/L (mean)

2009/10: Kendenup (Western Australia) – Hardness 270mg/L (max)

2010/11 Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 280mg/L (max), 257mg/L (mean)

2011/12 Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 290mg/L (max), 262mg/L (mean)

2013/14 Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 270mg/L (max), 258mg/L (mean)

2014/15 Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 280mg/L (max), 265mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 270mg/L (max), 255mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 290mg/L (max), 275mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 280mg/L (max), 273mg/L (mean)

2018/19: Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 290mg/L (max), 270mg/L (mean)

2019/20: Kendenup (Western Australia) Hardness 290mg/L (max), 268mg/L (mean)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Kendenup – Western Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

2008/09: Kendenup (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 602mg/L (max), 584mg/L (mean)

2011/12 Kendenup (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids  608mg/L (max), 581mg/L (mean)

2014/15 Kendenup (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 616mg/L (max), 597mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Kendenup (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 618mg/L (max), 596mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Kendenup (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 615mg/L (max), 599mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Kendenup (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 618mg/L (max), 605mg/L (mean)

2018/19: Kendenup (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 608mg/L (max), 592mg/L (mean)

2019/20: Kendenup (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 619mg/L (max), 593mg/L (mean)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Kendenup (Western Australia) – Turbidity

2011/12 Kendenup (Western Australia) Turbidity  11NTU (max), 2.4NTU (av)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.

Kendenup (Western Australia) Iron

2011/12 Kendenup (Western Australia) Iron 1.6mg/L (max), 0.374mg/L (av)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011