2007/18 – Northampton (Western Australia) – Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity, Chloride, Iron, Sodium

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Northampton – Western Australia – Hardness

2007/08: Northampton (Western Australia) – Hardness 221mg/L (Highest Detection Only)

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Northampton – Western Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

2008/09: Northampton (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 869mg/L (max), 825mg/L (mean)

2009/10: Northampton (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 850mg/L

2010/11 Northampton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 853mg/L (max), 833mg/L (av)

2011/12 Northampton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 869mg/L (max), 863mg/L (av)

2013/14 Northampton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 853mg/L (max), 834mg/L (av)

2014/15 Northampton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 837mg/L (max), 833mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Northampton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 844mg/L (max), 842mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Northampton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 879mg/L (max), 854mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Northampton (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 846mg/L (max), 844mg/L (mean)

GUIDELINE

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

2009/10 – Northampton (Western Australia) – Turbidity

2009/10 – Northampton (Western Australia) – Turbidity 9.4NTU (max)

2013/14 Northampton (Western Australia) Turbidity  9NTU (max), 3.2NTU (av)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap

Northampton (Western Australia) – Chloride

2013/14 Northampton (Western Australia) Chloride 395mg/L (max), 380mg/L (av)

2014/15 Northampton (Western Australia) Chloride 385mg/L (max), 385mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Northampton (Western Australia) Chloride 385mg/L (max), 383mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Northampton (Western Australia) Chloride 425mg/L (max), 395mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Northampton (Western Australia) Chloride 390mg/L (max), 387.5mg/L (av)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Northampton (Western Australia) Iron

2013/14 Northampton (Western Australia) Iron 0.34mg/L (max), 0.132mg/L (av)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Northampton (Western Australia) – Sodium

2013/14 Northampton (Western Australia) Sodium  245mg/L (max), 243mg/L (av)

2014/15 Northampton (Western Australia) Sodium 240mg/L (max), 240mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Northampton (Western Australia) Sodium 250mg/L (max), 248mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Northampton (Western Australia) Sodium 250mg/L (max), 250mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Northampton (Western Australia) Sodium 250mg/L (max), 257.5mg/L (mean)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011