2006/10 + 2015/20: Seaspray (Victoria) – PFAS, E.coli, Trihalomethanes, Manganese, Iron

2017-2020: Seaspray (Victoria) – PFAS

Seaspray Reticulation

12/11/19: PERFLUOROBUTANOIC ACID (PFBA) 0.04ug/L. Sum of PFAS 0.04ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.04ug/L [Guideline for PFHxS & PFOS 0.07ug/L. Guideline for PFOA 0.56ug/L. No Guideline for PFBA

15/4/20: PERFLUOROBUTANOIC ACID (PFBA) 0.08ug/L. PERFLUOROPENTANOIC ACID (PFPeA) 0.004ug/L.  Sum of PFAS 0.084ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.084ug/L [Guideline for PFHxS & PFOS 0.07ug/L. Guideline for PFOA 0.56ug/L. No Guideline for PFBA or PFPeA

12/8/20: PERFLUOROPENTANOIC ACID (PFPeA) 0.004ug/L.  Sum of PFAS 0.004ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.004ug/L [Guideline for PFHxS & PFOS 0.07ug/L. Guideline for PFOA 0.56ug/L. No Guideline for PFPeA

Seaspray Raw water Inlet to WTP

9/5/17: PERFLUOROHEXANE SULFONIC ACID (PFHxS) 0.047ug/L, PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONIC ACID (PFOS) 0.003ug/L. Sum of PFAS: 0.05, SUM of PFAS and PFHxS 0.05 [Guideline for PFHxS & PFOS 0.07ug/L. Guideline for PFOA 0.56ug/L.

12/9/17: PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONIC ACID (PFOS) 0.003ug/L. Sum of PFAS: 0.003, SUM of PFAS and PFHxS 0.003 [Guideline for PFHxS & PFOS 0.07ug/L. Guideline for PFOA 0.56ug/L.

8/10/19: PERFLUOROPENTANOIC ACID (PFPeA) 0.003ug/L. Sum of PFAS 0.003ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER LIST): 0.003ug/L Guideline for PFHxS & PFOS 0.07ug/L. Guideline for PFOA 0.56ug/L. No Guideline for PFPeA

14/1/20: 6:2 FLUOROTELOMER SULFONIC ACID 0.009ug/L, PERFLUOROPENTANOIC ACID (PFPeA) 0.003ug/L Sum of PFAS 0.012ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER LIST): 0.012ug/L Guideline for PFHxS & PFOS 0.07ug/L. Guideline for PFOA 0.56ug/L. No Guideline for 6:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic Acid or PFPeA

PFAS Drinking Water Guidelines

“Sum of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS)” 0.07 μg/L (70 ng/L)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 0.56 μg/L (560 ng/L)

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are manufactured chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. PFAS chemicals include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) amongst a large group of other compounds. PFAS are persistent in the environment, show the potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification, and are toxic in animal studies (potential developmental, reproductive and systemic toxicity). They have been used in a wide range of consumer products including surface treatments such as non-stick cookware, and notably in aqueous film forming foam used to extinguish fires.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011 (PFAS update August 2018)

Feb 14-16 2005: Seaspray – E.coli 

Lot 10 Panaroma Dve
Contamination associated with the high level area of Seaspray only due to bird access to the high level tank. Flushing of high level tank and high level reticulation system. Re-samples contained zero E.coli throughout entire Seaspray reticulation system. Tank roof repaired.

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Seaspray (Victoria)

2007/8 Seaspray THM 0.450mg/L (Highest Level Only)

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: https://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm

Seaspray – Victoria – Manganese

2006/7: Seaspray (Victoria) – Manganese 0.62mg/L (highest level)

2006/7: Seaspray (Victoria) – Manganese 0.37mg/L

2008/9: Seaspray (Victoria) – Manganese 0.1mg/L (highest level)

Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbling fixtures and laundry.

Seaspray – Victoria – Iron

February 2010: Seaspray (Victoria)  – Iron 0.3mg/L

March 2010: Seaspray (Victoria)  – Iron 0.5mg/L

2015/16: Seaspray (Victoria)  – Iron 0.53mg/L (High Level)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011