2008/17: Encounter Bay (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate, Trihalomethanes

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Encounter Bay (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

18/12/08 Encounter Bay Chloral Hydrate 26.5ug/L

27/8/09 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 23.6ug/L

24/9/09 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 25.2ug/L

22/10/09 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 28.3ug/L

19/11/09 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 25.4ug/L

17/12/09 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 29ug/L

14/1/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 29.9ug/L

11/2/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 24.5ug/L

3/6/10 Encounter Bay Chloral Hydrate 20.4ug/L

1/7/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 27ug/L

29/7/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 24.4ug/L

26/8/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 27ug/L

23/9/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 26.4ug/L

19/10/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 31.9ug/L

18/11/10 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 31.1ug/L

13/1/11 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 26.2ug/L

25/8/11 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 22.2ug/L

23/9/11 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 22.7ug/L

17/11/11 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 28ug/L

15/12/11 Encounter Bay  Chloral Hydrate 27ug/L

 

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

 

Encounter Bay (South Australia)

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

18/12/2008 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 262 ug/L

15/01/2009 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L

12/02/2009 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 265 ug/L

12/03/2009 Encounter Bay  Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 291 ug/L

17/12/2009 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 286 ug/L

14/01/2010 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 280 ug/L

11/02/2010 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 273 ug/L

11/03/2010 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L

8/04/2010 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 285 ug/L

6/05/2010 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 256 ug/L

23/09/2010  Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 258 ug/L

18/11/2010 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 259 ug/L

16/12/2010 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 259 ug/L

13/01/2011 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 268 ug/L

10/02/2011 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 263 ug/L

12/01/2012 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 272 ug/L

3/05/2012 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 256 ug/L

9/05/2013 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

18/03/2014 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 275 ug/L

12/06/2014 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 276 ug/L

3/09/2015 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 262 ug/L

21/12/2015 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 279 ug/L

12/05/2016 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 273 ug/L

16/02/2017 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 290 ug/L

16/03/2017 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 282 ug/L

13/04/2017 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 268 ug/L

8/06/2017 Encounter Bay Pollard Court Trihalomethanes – Total 260 ug/L

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm