2008/12 + 2015/17: Port Parham (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes, Chloral Hydrate, Chloroketones, Temperature

Port Parham (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

16/09/2008 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 262 ug/L

11/11/2008 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 260 ug/L

15/12/2008 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 266 ug/L

10/03/2009  Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 294 ug/L

6/04/2009 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 259 ug/L

1/06/2009 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 250 ug/L

17/11/2009 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 253 ug/L

15/12/2009 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 292 ug/L

13/01/2010 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 287 ug/L

9/02/2010 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 313 ug/L

10/03/2010  Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 279 ug/L

7/04/2010  Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 292 ug/L

19/10/2010 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 268 ug/L

16/11/2010 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 269 ug/L

14/12/2010 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 268 ug/L

12/01/2011 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 289 ug/L

8/03/2011 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 301 ug/L

8/02/2011  Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 297 ug/L

15/11/2011 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 285 ug/L

29/11/2011 Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 282 ug/L

10/01/2012  Port Parham The Esplanade Trihalomethanes – Total 271 ug/L

7/7/15 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 254 ug/L

6/8/15 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

29/9/15 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 251 ug/L

19/10/15 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 260 ug/L

24/11/15 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

9/6/16 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 294 ug/L

7/7/16 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 286 ug/L

1/9/16 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 251 ug/L

30/9/16 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 268 ug/L

27/10/16 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 278 ug/L

14/2/17 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 306 ug/L

23/2/17 Port Parham 88 Prime Street Trihalomethanes – Total 277 ug/L

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in

Port Parham (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

27/1/17 Port Parham  Chloral Hydrate 164ug/L

23/2/17 Port Parham  Chloral Hydrate 224ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

Port Parham (South Australia) – Chloroketones

23/2/17: Port Parham (South Australia): 1,1,1-trichloropropan-2-one 58.4ug/L

“GUIDELINE
Data are inadequate to set guideline values for chloroketones in drinking water.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The chloroketones are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between naturally occurring organic matter and chlorine. No data are available on other sources or uses for these compounds. Concentrations of chloroketones in drinking water reported overseas are very low and are estimated at less than 0.01 mg/L.

TYPICAL VALUES IN AUSTRALIAN DRINKING WATER
In major Australian reticulated supplies 1,1,1-trichloropropanone has been recorded in concentrations up to 0.02 mg/L, but it is usually below the limit of determination of 0.0005 mg/L. No data are available for other chloroketones.

LIMITING FORMATION IN DRINKING WATER
The presence of chloroketones in drinking water can be minimised by removing naturally occurring organic matter from the source water, by reducing the amount of chlorine added, or by the use of alternative disinfectants.” 2011 ADWG

Port Parham – South Australia – Temperature

December 22 2016: Port Parham (South Australia) Prime St – Temperature 21C

January 19 2017: Port Parham (South Australia) Prime St – Temperature 23C

February 14 2017: Port Parham (South Australia) Prime St – Temperature 22C

February 23 2017: Port Parham (South Australia) Prime St – Temperature 21C

March 15 2017: Port Parham (South Australia) Prime St – Temperature 23C

April 7 2017: Port Parham (South Australia) Prime St – Temperature 21C

 

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).