2008/12 + 2016/17: Port Wakefield (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes, pH (alkaline), Temperature

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Port Wakefield (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

3/11/2008 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L

1/12/2008 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L

28/01/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 292 ug/L

24/02/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 263 ug/L

20/04/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 276 ug/L

18/05/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 250 ug/L

14/09/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

2/11/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 274 ug/L

30/11/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 313 ug/L

29/12/2009 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 368 ug/L

27/01/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 334 ug/L

22/02/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 335 ug/L

29/03/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 321 ug/L

17/05/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 309 ug/L

15/06/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 277 ug/L

13/07/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 274 ug/L

9/08/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L

6/09/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

5/10/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 275 ug/L

1/11/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 273 ug/L

29/11/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 315 ug/L

29/12/2010 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 269 ug/L

22/02/2011 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 282 ug/L

21/03/2011 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 265 ug/L

12/04/2011 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 258 ug/L

8/08/2011 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 267 ug/L

31/10/2011 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 287 ug/L

28/11/2011 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 308 ug/L

18/12/2011 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 250 ug/L

16/01/2012 Port Wakefield Proof Range Inlet Main Port Wakefield Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 267 ug/L

 

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in

Port Wakefield (South Australia) – pH (alkaline)

Average pH: 2016 September-2017 June: 9.36 pH units

Average pH: 2016 July-2017 June: 8.758 pH units (Erith Rd)

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.

When pH is below 6.5 or above 11, the water may corrode plumbing fittings and pipes. This, however, will depend on other factors such as the material used, the concentration and type of ions in solution, the availability of oxygen, and the water temperature. Under some conditions, particularly in the presence of strong oxidising agents such as chlorine, water with a pH between 6.5 and 7 can be quite corrosive.

Chlorine disinfection efficiency is impaired above pH 8.0, although the optimum pH for monochloramine disinfectant formation is between 8.0 and 8.4. In chloraminated supplies chlorine can react with ammonia to form odorous nitrogen trichloride below pH 7.

Chlorination of water supplies can decrease the pH, while it can be significantly raised by lime leached from new concrete tanks or from pipes lined with asbestos cement or cement mortar. Values of pH above 9.5 can cause a bitter taste in drinking water, and can irritate skin if the water is used for ablutions.

Port Wakefield – South Australia – Temperature

November 21 2016: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 21C

December 19 2016: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 24C

January 17 2017: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 25C

February 13 2017: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 24C

March 14 2017: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 25C

March 29 2017: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 25C

April 4 2017: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 22C

April 10 2017: Port Wakefield (South Australia) Port Wakefield Rd – Temperature 21C

 

 

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).