Pmara Jutunta (Northern Territory) – Nitrate
2008/09: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 54.2mg/L
2009/10: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 50mg/L
2010/11: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 52mg/L
2013/14: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 52mg/L
2015/16: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 50mg/L
2016/17: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 50mg/L
2017/18: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 50mg/L
2019/20: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 50mg/L
2020/21: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 50mg/L
2021/22: Pmara Jutunta Nitrate 50mg/L
Nitrate: ADWG Guideline 50mg/L. Nitrate is the product of oxygenated nitrogen created from the breakdown of organic matter; lightning strikes; inorganic pesticides; or explosives. The Australian Drinking Water Guidelines recommend that nitrate levels between 50-100mg/L are a health consideration for infants less than three months, although levels up to 100mg/L can be safely consumed by adults. Mainly a problem in Northern Territory and some communities in Western Australia. “Cue, Meekatharra, Mount Magnet, New Norcia, Sandstone, Wiluna and Yalgoo have been granted an exemption from compliance with the nitrate guideline by the Department of Health. The water supplied is harmless to adults and children over the age of 3 months of age. Carers of infants younger than three months should seek advice from the Community Health Nurse regarding the use of alternative water sources for the preparation of bottle feeds. The Water Corporation provides bottled water free of charge for this purpose.”
Pmara Jutunta (Northern Territory) Hardness
2008/09: Pmara Jutunta Hardness 211mg/L
2013/14: Pmara Jutunta Hardness 202mg/L
2015/16: Pmara Jutunta Hardness 211mg/L
2016/17: Pmara Jutunta Hardness 205mg/L
“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.
Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”
Pmara Jutunta (Northern Territory) – Uranium
2003/4: Naturally occurring uranium concentrations above the guideline value have been identified in the drinking water supply at Ti Tree and Pmara Jutunta. The community has been informed and the Department of Health and Community Services has stated that there is no immediate threat to public health. A new groundwater supply has been developed close to Pmara Jutunta that has both uranium and total dissolved solids below guideline values. Power and Water is in the process of building a pipeline that will connect the new bore water supply to Ti Tree/Pmara Jutunta. The new borewater supply will be operational in 2004-2005.
2017/18: Pmara Jutunta (Northern Territory) Uranium 0.016mg/L (max)
“Based on health considerations, the concentration of uranium in drinking water should not exceed 0.017 mg/L.” ADWG 2011
Pmara Jutunta (Northern Territory) – Silica
2021/22: Pmara Jutunta (Northern Territory) Silica 90mg/L (av.)
To minimise an undesirable scale build up on surfaces, silica (SiO2) within drinking waters should not exceed 80 mg/L.
Silica present in water is usually referred to as amorphous silica (i.e. lacking any crystalline structure). When silica is dissolved within water it forms monosilicic acid:
SiO2 + 2H2O à Si(OH)4
When the concentrations of monosilicic acid increase, polymerisation of the silica occurs, forming polysilicic acids followed by formation of colloidal silica. Monosilicic acid and polysilicic acids are the forms of silica analysed when determining dissolved silica content.
The deposition of silica from solutions can occur via various mechanisms. The deposition of silica that can cause the most problems for the water industry is via silica’s ability to deposit on solid surfaces that have hydroxyl (OH) groups present. Surfaces that commonly have hydroxyl groups present are glass and metallic surfaces. For example, dissolved silica will react with the surfaces of glass and begin to form a white precipitate. The silica forms silicates on the surface, resulting in silica build-up. In cases where customer complaints occur due to scale build-up, water hardness and silica concentrations should be investigated to determine the cause.
Silica can be a problem in water treatment due to its ability to cause fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes (Sheikholeslami and Tan, 1999, Ning 2002, Sahachaiyunta and Sheikholeslami 2002). This occurs when the dissolved silica of the concentrate becomes super-saturated, causing silicates to form in the presence of metals, and these deposit on the membrane surface. The silicate then dehydrates, forming hard layers on the membrane that reduce the effectiveness of the process… 2011 ADWG