2008/2013 + 2016/17 – Broadford (Victoria) – Chlorophenols, Turbidity, Colour, Iron

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2008-11 Broadford (Victoria) – Chlorophenols

9/02/2011: Broadford 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol = 50 µg/L

5/01/2011: Broadford 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol = 30 µg/L

6/07/2009: Broadford 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol = 0.6 µg/L

1/12/2008: Broadford 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol = 0.7 µg/L

ADWG Guidelines: 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Health: 20 µg/L Aesthetic: 2 µg/L

No Guideline exists for 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

Chlorophenols

Included with the Freedom of Information request from Goulburn Valley Water were detections for 2,4,5 Trichlorophenol (8 detections) (highest level: 460 µg/L 18/10/11 Strathbogie) and 2,4-6 Trichlorophenol (96 detections) (highest level 5.2µg/L: Strathbogie 16/11/15).

According to the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

“ Chlorophenols may be present in drinking water as a result of chlorination of water that contains phenol or lower chlorophenols, or from contamination of water sources. Chlorination of water containing natural organic compounds can produce very low concentrations of chlorophenols. Degradation of phenoxy herbicides such as 2,4,5 – T and 2,4 – D also generates chlorophenols…

Chlorophenols are used commercially as preservatives, moth – proofing agents, germicides and anti – mildew agents…. No data are available on concentrations of chlorophenols in Australian drinking waters. If present at all, it is likely that concentrations would be extremely low.”

2,4,6 Trichlorophenol is listed under the 2002-3 Goulburn Valley Water – Water Quality Annual Report as “Health – Related Organics – Organic chemicals that can impact on the health of consumers are rarely present in drinking water supplies, but could potentially be present in raw water sources as a result of accidental spills or misuse.”

Due to the unknown source of the Trichlorophenols, these detections were not included in the final pesticide data in this report, but are assumed to be a byproduct of disinfection. Average level of 2,4,6 Trichlorophenol detected 2008-16 in 33 locations: 0.93µg/L. Average level 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol detected 2011-15 in 4 locations: 72.87µg/L.

“Under the Radar” Pesticide Detections Victorian Water Supplies 2007-2016 – Anthony Amis – Friends of the Earth Melbourne October 2017

2012/13 – Broadford (Victoria) – Turbidity

2012/13 – Broadford (Victoria) – Turbidity 7.6NTU (max)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap

Broadford –  Victoria – Iron

2016/17: Broadford (Victoria)  – Iron 0.52mg/L (max)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Broadford (Victoria) – Colour

2016/17 Broadford (Victoria) – Colour 78 HU (highest level)

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…