2008/23 – Calingiri (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness, Sodium, Chloride

Calingiri – Western Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

2008/09: Calingiri (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 691mg/L (max), 605mg/L (mean)

2010/11 Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1021mg/L (max), 779mg/L (av)

2011/12 Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1104mg/L (max), 757mg/L (av)

2013/14 Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 776mg/L (max), 776mg/L (av)

2014/15 Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 734mg/L (max), 617mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 827mg/L (max), 793mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 999mg/L (max), 825mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1042mg/L (max), 850mg/L (mean)

2018/19: Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1179mg/L (max), 917mg/L (mean)

2019/20: Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1006mg/L (max), 946mg/L (mean)

2022/23: Calingiri (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 870mg/L (max), 809mg/L (mean)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Calingiri – Western Australia – Hardness

2011/12 Calingiri (Western Australia) Hardness 220mg/L (max), 145mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Calingiri (Western Australia) Hardness 230mg/L (max), 170mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Calingiri (Western Australia) Hardness 230mg/L (max), 175mg/L (mean)

2018/19: Calingiri (Western Australia) Hardness 270mg/L (max), 195mg/L (mean)

2019/20: Calingiri (Western Australia) Hardness 210mg/L (max), 192mg/L (mean)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

2013/14: Calingiri (Western Australia) – Sodium

2013/14 Calingiri (Western Australia) Sodium  215mg/L (max), 215mg/L (av)

2014/15 Calingiri (Western Australia) Sodium 210mg/L (max), 173mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Calingiri (Western Australia) Sodium 245mg/L (max), 229mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Calingiri (Western Australia) Sodium 295mg/L (max), 242mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Calingiri (Western Australia) Sodium 300mg/L (max), 246.3mg/L (mean)

2018/19: Calingiri (Western Australia) Sodium 355mg/L (max), 273mg/L (mean)

2019/20: Calingiri (Western Australia) Sodium 290mg/L (max), 272mg/L (mean)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011


Calingiri (Western Australia) – Chloride

2013/14 Calingiri (Western Australia) Chloride 400mg/L (max), 400mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Calingiri (Western Australia) Chloride 435mg/L (max), 411mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Calingiri (Western Australia) Chloride 500mg/L (max), 425mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Calingiri (Western Australia) Chloride 560mg/L (max), 441.3mg/L (mean)

2018/19: Calingiri (Western Australia) Chloride 620mg/L (max), 473mg/L (mean)

2019/20: Calingiri (Western Australia) Chloride 525mg/L (max), 489mg/L (mean)

2022/23: Calingiri (Western Australia) Chloride 435mg/L (max), 404mg/L (mean)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines