2008/13 + 2018/19 – Fiskville/Glenmore (Victoria) – E.coli, Lead, pH, Hardness, Turbidity

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2010/13 –  Fiskville/Glenmore (Victoria) E.coli

28 January 2012 (6 days) Fiskville/Glenmore (Ballarat System) E. coli – 100 org/100mL E. coli – 200 org/100mL Fiskville/Glenmore Reticulation (Ballarat System)

22nd February 2013 (5 Days) Fiskville/Glenmore Customer Tap (Ballarat System) E. coli – 2 org/100mL Fiskville/Glenmore Reticulation (Ballarat System)

“E.coli

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG

Fiskville/Glenmore  (Victoria) – Lead

2009/10: Fiskville/Glenmore (Victoria) – Lead 0.013mg/L (Highest Detection)CHW2009-10_water_quality_report

2010/11: Fiskville/Glenmore (Victoria) – Lead 0.035mg/L (Highest Detection) CHW2010-11_water_quality_report

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…

Fiskville/Glenmore (Victoria) – pH (alkaline)

Average pH: 2008 July-2009 June: 9.0 pH units

Average pH: 2009 July-2010 June: 8.8 pH units

Average pH: 2018 July-2019 June: 8.5 pH units

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.

Fiskville/Glenmore – Victoria – Hardness

2008/09: Fiskville/Glenmore (Victoria) – Hardness 230mg/L (Highest Detection Only)

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

2011/12 – Fiskville/Glenmore Victoria) – Turbidity

2011/12: Fiskville/Glenmore Turbidity 6NTU

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap