2008/18 – Karratha (Western Australia) – Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids

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Karratha – Western Australia – Hardness

2008/09: Karratha (Western Australia) – Hardness 410mg/L (max), 222mg/L (mean)

2013/14 Karratha (Western Australia) Hardness 350mg/L (max), 230mg/L (av)

2014/15 Karratha (Western Australia) Hardness 270mg/L (max), 253mg/L (av)

2015/16 Karratha (Western Australia) Hardness 270mg/L (max), 335mg/L (av)

2016/17 Karratha (Western Australia) Hardness 230mg/L (max), 230mg/L (av)

2017/18 Karratha (Western Australia) Hardness 350mg/L (max), 250mg/L (av)

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Karratha – Western Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

2008/09: Karratha (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 910mg/L (max), 535mg/L (mean)

2013/14 Karratha (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 807mg/L (max), 547mg/L (av)

2014/15 Karratha (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 609mg/L (max), 584mg/L (av)

2015/16 Karratha (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 612mg/L (max), 582mg/L (av)

2017/18 Karratha (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 778mg/L (max), 582mg/L (mean)

GUIDELINE

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011