2008/17 + 2022/23 – Piawaning (Western Australia) – Iron, Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, Sodium

Piawaning –  Western Australia – Iron

2008/09: Piawaning (Western Australia)  – Iron 1.2mg/L (max), 0.44mg/L (mean)

2011/12 Piawaning (Western Australia) Iron 0.52mg/L (max), 0.253mg/L (av)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Piawaning (Western Australia)  Total Dissolved Solids

2009/10: Piawaning (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 661mg/L

2015/16 Piawaning (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 650mg/L (max), 510mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Piawaning (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 696mg/L (max), 544mg/L (mean)

2022/23 Piawaning (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 690mg/L (max), 591mg/L (mean)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Piawaning (Western Australia) – Chloride

2015/16 Piawaning (Western Australia) Chloride 310mg/L (max), 223mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Piawaning (Western Australia) Chloride 305mg/L (max), 228mg/L (mean)

2022/23 Piawaning (Western Australia) Chloride 320mg/L (max), 265mg/L (mean)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Piawaning (Western Australia) – Sodium

2016/17 Piawaning (Western Australia) Sodium 185mg/L (max), 132mg/L (mean)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011