Normanville (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

7/04/2006 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 276 ug/L

22/12/2006 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 253 ug/L

16/03/2007 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 288 ug/L

21/12/2007 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L

17/04/2009 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 254 ug/L

8/01/2010 Normanville CHeathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 251 ug/L

5/02/2010 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 267 ug/L

28/05/2010 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 270 ug/L

18/02/2011 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 287 ug/L

16/03/2012 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 258 ug/L

11/12/2015 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 259 ug/L

5/02/2016 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

20-Dec-17 Normanville  Trihalomethanes – Total 253 µg/L

1/02/2019 Normanville Trihalomethanes 253ug/l

2018/19: Normanville (South Australia) Trihalomethanes 253ug/L (max), 202.75ug/L (av.)

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: https://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in

Normanville (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

28/8/09 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 26ug/L

27/11/09 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 21.5ug/L

22/1/10 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 31.8ug/L

6/8/10 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 28.6ug/L

29/10/10 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 26.8ug/L

21//1/11 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 21.8ug/L

15/4/11 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 20.8ug/L

5/8/11 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 26.8ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

Normanville (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane (WHO “breaches”)

2018/19: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 84ug/L (max), 66.7ug/L (av.)

31/1/20 Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 80ug/L. (2019/20 av. 64.2ug/L)

28/8/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 62ug/L

25/9/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 67ug/L

30/10/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 60ug/L

27/11/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 77ug/L

23/12/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 73ug/L

29/1/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 75ug/L

26/2/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 84ug/L

26/3/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 60ug/L

30/4/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 64ug/L

26/11/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 63ug/L (max), 45.4ug/L (av. 2021/22)

WHO Guideline level BDCM: 60ug/L (Australian Guideline for BDCM is included in the combined total of BDCM, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Bromoform. THM guideline is 250ug/L)

“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).

Since bromodichloromethane was listed in the Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, additional studies in rats have been identified. Administration of bromodichloromethane in the drinking water increased the combined incidence of benign and malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma) in males (George et al. 2002) and caused benign liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma) in females (Tumasonis et al. 1987).

Cancer Studies in Humans
The data available from epidemiological studies are inadequate to evaluate the relationship between human cancer and exposure specifically to bromodichloromethane. Several epidemiological studies indicated a possible association between ingestion of chlorinated drinking water (which typically contains bromodichloromethane) and increased risk of
cancer in humans, but these studies could not provide information on whether any observed effects were due to bromodichloromethane or to one or more of the hundreds of other disinfection by-products also present in chlorinated water (ATSDR 1989).” (1)

Normanville (South Australia) – Haloacetic Acid’s

1/5/19: Normanville (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7) 151 ug/L

30/4/21: Normanville (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA9) 146ug/L

29/10/21: Normanville (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA 9) 180ug/L (max)

Australian Guidelines Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

2022/23: Normanville (South Australia) – pH (alkaline)

2022/23: Normanville (South Australia) pH 8.62 (av.)

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.

 

2006/12 + 2015/23: Normanville (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate, Trihalomethanes, Bromodichloromethane, Total Haloacetic Acids, pH

Normanville (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

7/04/2006 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 276 ug/L

22/12/2006 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 253 ug/L

16/03/2007 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 288 ug/L

21/12/2007 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L

17/04/2009 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 254 ug/L

8/01/2010 Normanville CHeathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 251 ug/L

5/02/2010 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 267 ug/L

28/05/2010 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 270 ug/L

18/02/2011 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 287 ug/L

16/03/2012 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 258 ug/L

11/12/2015 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 259 ug/L

5/02/2016 Normanville Heathcote St Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

20-Dec-17 Normanville  Trihalomethanes – Total 253 µg/L

1/02/2019 Normanville Trihalomethanes 253ug/l

2018/19: Normanville (South Australia) Trihalomethanes 253ug/L (max), 202.75ug/L (av.)

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: https://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in

Normanville (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

28/8/09 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 26ug/L

27/11/09 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 21.5ug/L

22/1/10 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 31.8ug/L

6/8/10 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 28.6ug/L

29/10/10 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 26.8ug/L

21//1/11 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 21.8ug/L

15/4/11 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 20.8ug/L

5/8/11 Normanville  Chloral Hydrate 26.8ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

Normanville (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane (WHO “breaches”)

2018/19: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 84ug/L (max), 66.7ug/L (av.)

31/1/20 Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 80ug/L. (2019/20 av. 64.2ug/L)

28/8/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 62ug/L

25/9/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 67ug/L

30/10/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 60ug/L

27/11/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 77ug/L

23/12/20: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 73ug/L

29/1/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 75ug/L

26/2/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 84ug/L

26/3/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 60ug/L

30/4/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 64ug/L

26/11/21: Normanville (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 63ug/L (max), 45.4ug/L (av. 2021/22)

WHO Guideline level BDCM: 60ug/L (Australian Guideline for BDCM is included in the combined total of BDCM, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Bromoform. THM guideline is 250ug/L)

“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).

Since bromodichloromethane was listed in the Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, additional studies in rats have been identified. Administration of bromodichloromethane in the drinking water increased the combined incidence of benign and malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma) in males (George et al. 2002) and caused benign liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma) in females (Tumasonis et al. 1987).

Cancer Studies in Humans
The data available from epidemiological studies are inadequate to evaluate the relationship between human cancer and exposure specifically to bromodichloromethane. Several epidemiological studies indicated a possible association between ingestion of chlorinated drinking water (which typically contains bromodichloromethane) and increased risk of
cancer in humans, but these studies could not provide information on whether any observed effects were due to bromodichloromethane or to one or more of the hundreds of other disinfection by-products also present in chlorinated water (ATSDR 1989).” (1)

Normanville (South Australia) – Haloacetic Acid’s

1/5/19: Normanville (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7) 151 ug/L

30/4/21: Normanville (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA9) 146ug/L

29/10/21: Normanville (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA 9) 180ug/L (max)

Australian Guidelines Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

2022/23: Normanville (South Australia) – pH (alkaline)

2022/23: Normanville (South Australia) pH 8.62 (av.)

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.