2009/16 – Mungoobada/Robinson River (Northern Territory) – E.coli, Hardness, Barium

Mungoobada/Robinson River – E.coli

2013/14: Robinson River E.coli 2 detections. 95% compliance during year

“E.coli

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG

Mungoobada/Robinson River (Northern Territory) – Barium

2008/09: Robinson River Barium 1.14mg/L

2009/10: Mungoobada Barium 1.1mg/L

2010/11: Mungoobada Barium 1.1mg/L

Barium: ADWG Guideline 2mg/L. Barium is a machineable metal and exists naturally only in ores containing mixtures of elements.

GUIDELINE
Based on health considerations, the concentration of barium in drinking water should not
exceed 2 mg/L.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Barium makes up approximately 0.04 per cent of the Earth’s crust, and is the 16th most abundant nongaseous element. Barium in drinking water is primarily from natural sources. Some barium salts such as the chloride and nitrate are soluble in water; others, including the carbonate, fluoride, phosphate and sulfate, are insoluble. Barium is not considered to be an essential nutrient for humans.
Barium compounds have a wide variety of industrial applications. They are used in the plastics, rubber, electronics, steel, optical, and textile industries. They are also used in ceramic glazes and enamels, in glass and paper making, as a lubricant additive, in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and as a rodenticide. The concentration of barium in drinking water overseas is usually low, typically less than 0.02 mg/L.
Most foods contain small quantities of barium. The major dietary sources are milk, potatoes and flour. Some cereal products and nuts can contain large amounts. It has been estimated that average dietary intake is approximately 1 mg per day.
TYPICAL VALUES IN AUSTRALIAN DRINKING WATER
In Australian drinking water supplies, typical concentrations of barium range from <0.002 mg/L to 1.1 mg/L.

Mungoobada/Robinson River (Northern Territory) Hardness

2007/08: Robinson River Hardness 419mg/L

2008/09: Robinson River Hardness 547mg/L

2009/10: Mungoobada Hardness 488mg/L

2010/11: Mungoobada Hardness 495mg/L

2013/14: Robinson River Hardness 502mg/L

2015/16: Mungoobada Hardness 514mg/L

2016/17: Robinson River Hardness 524mg/L

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011