2010/13 + 2016/23: Cooltong (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes, Bromodichloromethane, E.coli, Haloacetic Acid, Chloropicrin

Cooltong (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes

14/04/2010 Cooltong TS- Cooltong Rd (3km from old store) Trihalomethanes – Total 274 ug/L

18/01/2011 Cooltong  Storey Ave (near old toilet) Trihalomethanes – Total 413 ug/L

16/02/2011 Cooltong Cooltong Rd (3km from old store) Trihalomethanes – Total 445 ug/L

16/03/2011 Cooltong Storey Ave (near old toilet) Trihalomethanes – Total 393 ug/L

14/02/2012 Cooltong Cooltong Rd (3km from old store) Trihalomethanes – Total 264 ug/L

13/03/2012 Cooltong Storey Ave (near old toilet) Trihalomethanes – Total 430 ug/L

6/03/2013 Orthcooltong Ave (near old toilet) Trihalomethanes – Total 274 ug/L

14/12/2016 Orthcooltong Ave (near old toilet) Trihalomethanes – Total 272 ug/L

10/3/22: Cooltong Orthcooltong Ave. Trihalomethanes 269ug/L (max) 157.4ug/L (av. 2021/22)

Australian Drinking Water Guideline Level (Trihalomethanes) 0.250mg/L (250ug/L) (US Guideline 0.08mg/L)

Classical trihalomethanes consist of chloroform (CHCl3), dichlorobromoform (CHCl2Br),
dibromochloroform (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3).

“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odorless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of byproducts formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”.

Cooltong (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane

2022/23: Cooltong (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 62ug/L (max), 45.95ug/L (av.)

WHO Guideline level BDCM: 60ug/L (Australian Guideline for BDCM is included in the Trihalomethane (THM) combined total of BDCM, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Bromoform. THM guideline is 250ug/L)

“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).

Cooltong (South Australia) – E.coli

March 8 2017: Cooltong Orthcoolong Avenue North (South Australia) – E.coli 1 cfu/100ml

May 9 2017: Cooltong Road (South Australia) – E.coli 3 cfu/100ml

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Cooltong (South Australia) – Total Haloacetic Acid’s

3/11/20: Cooltong (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA9) 0.106mg/L

2/11/21: Cooltong (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA 9) 0.161mg/L (max) 0.157mg/L (av. 2021/22)

2/11/22: Cooltong (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA 9) 0.248mg/L (max) 0.193mg/L (av. 2022/23)

Australian Guidelines Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

2022/23 Cooltong (South Australia) Chloropicrin

2022/23: Cooltong (South Australia) Chloropicrin 1.6ug/L (max), 0.8ug/L (av.)

No Guideline level for Chloropicrin

Chloropicrin is formed in water by the reaction of chlorine with humic acids, amino acids,
and nitrophenols. The presence of nitrates increases the amount formed (6). Chloropicrin has
been detected in drinking-water; however, in the presence of reducing agents, it is converted
into chloroform