Gudabijin (Bulla) (Northern Territory) – Barium
Barium: ADWG Guideline 2mg/L. Barium is a machineable metal and exists naturally only in ores containing mixtures of elements.
2007/08: Bulla Barium 4.6mg/L
2009/10: Gudabijin Barium 6.89mg/L
2010/11: Gudabijin Barium 4.11mg/L
2013/14: Bulla Barium 5.5mg/L
2015/16: Gudabijin Barium 6.86mg/L
2016/17: Gudabijan Barium 10mg/L (95th%)
2017/18: Gudabijan Barium 10mg/L (95th %)
2018/19: Gudabijan Barium 10mg/L (95th %)
2019/20: Gudabijan Barium 11mg/L (95th %)
2020/21: Gudabijan Barium 2mg/L (av.)
2021/22: Gudabijan Barium 10mg/L(max), 3 mg/L (av.)
Based on health considerations, the concentration of barium in drinking water should not
exceed 2 mg/L.
Barium makes up approximately 0.04 per cent of the Earth’s crust, and is the 16th most abundant nongaseous element. Barium in drinking water is primarily from natural sources. Some barium salts such as the chloride and nitrate are soluble in water; others, including the carbonate, ﬂuoride, phosphate and sulfate, are insoluble. Barium is not considered to be an essential nutrient for humans.
Barium compounds have a wide variety of industrial applications. They are used in the plastics, rubber, electronics, steel, optical, and textile industries. They are also used in ceramic glazes and enamels, in glass and paper making, as a lubricant additive, in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and as a rodenticide. The concentration of barium in drinking water overseas is usually low, typically less than 0.02 mg/L.
Most foods contain small quantities of barium. The major dietary sources are milk, potatoes and flour. Some cereal products and nuts can contain large amounts. It has been estimated that average dietary intake is approximately 1 mg per day.
TYPICAL VALUES IN AUSTRALIAN DRINKING WATER
In Australian drinking water supplies, typical concentrations of barium range from <0.002 mg/L to 1.1 mg/L.
Gudabijin (Northern Territory) – E.coli
2009/10: Gudabijin 1 detection E.coli. 97% ecoli performance over year
2015/16: Gudabijin 3 detections E.coli 92% E.coli performance over year
Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG
Gudabijin/Bulla (Northern Territory) – Chromium
2020/21 – Gudabijin/Bulla (Northern Territory) – Chromium 0.1mg/L (av. 2020/21 0.06mg/L)
Based on health considerations, the concentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in
drinking water should not exceed 0.05 mg/L. If the concentration of total chromium exceeds
this value then a separate analysis for hexavalent chromium should be undertaken.
Chromium is present in the environment in the trivalent (Cr(III)) and hexavalent (Cr(VI)) states.
Trivalent chromium is the most common naturally occurring state. Most soils and rocks contain small amounts of chromium oxide, and weathering, oxidation and bacterial action convert this insoluble compound into soluble Cr(III) salts.
Trivalent chromium salts are used in leather tanning, manufacture of catalysts, paint pigments, fungicides,and ceramic and glass manufacture.
Trivalent chromium is an essential trace element for humans, with food being the major source of intake.
Hexavalent chromium occurs infrequently in nature. Its presence in water is generally the result of industrial and domestic chromium waste discharges. Hexavalent chromium compounds are used in the metallurgical industry for chrome alloy and chrome metal production, and in the chemical industry as oxidising agents.
Hexavalent chromium is not considered to be an essential nutrient and harmful effects due to chromium have been attributed to this form.
Total chromium concentrations in drinking water are usually less than 0.005 mg/L although
concentrations between 0.06 mg/L to 0.12 mg/L have been reported overseas.
TYPICAL VALUES IN AUSTRALIAN DRINKING WATER
In major Australian reticulated supplies concentrations of total chromium range up to 0.03 mg/L, with typical concentrations usually less than 0.005 mg/L.
Gudabijin/Bulla (Northern Territory) – Manganese
Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbing fixtures and laundry.
Gudabijin/Bulla (Northern Territory) Hardness
2007/08: Bulla Hardness 254mg/L
2008/09: Bulla Hardness 250mg/L
2009/10: Gudabijin Hardness 258mg/L
2010/11: Gudabijin Hardness 240mg/L
2013/14: Bulla Hardness 226mg/L
2015/16: Gudabijin Hardness 226mg/L
2016/17: Bulla Hardness 228mg/L
2021/22: Bulla Hardness 300mg/L (max), 300mg/L (av.)
“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.
Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”
Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011
Gudabijin/Bulla (Northern Territory) Iron
2007/08: Bulla Iron 0.41mg/L
2008/09: Bulla Iron 0.32mg/L
Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.
Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011
Gudabijin/Bulla (Northern Territory) – Fluoride
2016/17: Gudabjin (Northern Territory) – Fluoride 1.4mg/L (95th %)
2017/18: Gudabjin (Northern Territory) – Fluoride 1.5mg/L (95th %)
“Fluoride occurs naturally in seawater (1.4 mg/L), soil (up to 300 parts per million) and air (from volcanic gases and industrial pollution). Naturally occurring fluoride concentrations in drinking water depend on the type of soil and rock through which the water drains. Generally, concentrations in surface water are relatively low (<0.1–0.5 mg/L), while water from deeper wells may have quite high concentrations (1–10 mg/L) if the rock formations are fluoride-rich.” 2011 ADWG. Health Guideline: 1.5mg/L