Penneshaw (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes
Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only
17/01/2000 Penneshaw Wrights Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 257 ug/L
22/02/2000 Penneshaw Wrights Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 356 ug/L
17/04/2000 Penneshaw Wrights Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 359 ug/L
17/07/2000 Penneshaw Middle Tce Trihalomethanes – Total 257 ug/L
17/07/2000 Penneshaw Wrights Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 331 ug/L
23/05/2002 Penneshaw Howard Dr Trihalomethanes – Total 261 ug/L
17/06/2002 Penneshaw Wrights Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 329 ug/L
Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)
Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in
Penneshaw (South Australia) Antimony
One reading in South Australian breached ADWG between 2000-2012: Penneshaw 29/9/10 0.0031mg/L.
Antimony: ADWG Guideline 0.003mg/L. Antimony shows similar toxic effects as arsenic. Can be a problem with antimony-tin solder.
2016: Penneshaw (South Australia) – Chlorate
10/8/16: Penneshaw (South Australia) – Chlorate 0.32mg/L
Incident Description: The first non-compliance was a detection of chlorate from a routine sample taken from the Jericho Water Treatment Plant and the Alpha Water Treatment Plant. As Chlorate is a parameter with no reporting limit, any detection is reported immediately to the Department and results are monitored monthly. Corrective and Preventative Actions: Council are conducting further investigations into how to minimise chlorate occurrences, by looking to delivery methods and storage of chemicals.
Chlorite: ADWG Health 0.3mg/L.
Chlorite and chlorate are disinfection by-products of chlorine dioxide disinfection process.
“… industry are having serious problems meeting chlorite/chlorate limits that were proposed in the new Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, especially for disinfection in long distance pipelines that are dosed with sodium hyptochlorite” pers comm 18/5/11.
“Chlorite occurs in drinking water when chlorine dioxide is used for purification purposes. The
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that chlorite is not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans and is listed in the Group 3 category. Changes in red blood vessels due to oxidative stress are a major concern with excessive levels of Chlorite in drinking water. According to the US EPA, potential health problems for people drinking Chorite above safe drinking water guideline include: Anemia in infants and young children and nervous system effects.” http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm
“Chlorine dioxide (chlorite) is rarely used as a disinfectant in Australian reticulated supplies.
When used, the chlorite residual is generally maintained between 0.2mg/L and 0.4mg/L. It is
particularly effective inthe control of manganese-reducing bacteria. Few data are available on
chlorate levels in Australian water supplies….Chlorine dioxide, chlorite, and chlorate are all
absorbed rapidly by the gastrointestinal tract into blood plasma and distributed to the major
organs. All compounds appear to be rapidly metabolised. Chlorine dioxide has been shown to
impair neurobehavioural and neurological development in rats exposed before birth. Experimental studies with rats and monkeys exposed to chlorine dioxide in drinking water have shown some evidence of thyroid toxicity; however, because of the studies’ limitations, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions (WHO 2005) The primary concern with chlorite and chlorate is oxidative stress resulting in changes in red blood cells. This end point is seen in laboratory animals and, by analogy with chlorate, in humans exposed to high doses in poisoning incidents (WHO 2005).” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Centre
“…Subchronic studies in animals (cats, mice, rats and monkeys) indicate that chlorite and chlorate cause haematological changes (osmotic fragility, oxidative stress, increase in mean corpuscular volume), stomach lesions and increased spleen and adrenal weights… Neurobehavioural effects (lowered auditory startle amplitude, decreased brain weight and decreased exploratory activity) are the most sensitive endpoints following oral exposure to chlorite…” http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/chlorite-chlorate/indexeng.
php#sec10_1Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality.