2011/14 + 2018/23: Sellicks Beach [Capri Ave] (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate, Trihalomethanes, Bromodichloromethane. pH

Sellicks Beach (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

23/02/2011 Sellicks Beach Capri Av Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

29/03/2012 Sellicks Beach Capri Av Trihalomethanes – Total 260 ug/L

30/04/2014 Sellicks Beach Capri Av Trihalomethanes – Total 267 ug/L

28/05/2014 Sellicks Beach Capri Av Trihalomethanes – Total 262 ug/L

11/06/2014 Sellicks Beach Capri Av Trihalomethanes – Total 256 ug/L

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: https://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in

Sellicks Beach [Capri Avenue] (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane

2018/19: Sellicks Beach [Capri Avenue] (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 73ug/L (max), 42.5ug/L (av.)

6/5/20: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) Bromodichloromethane 69ug/L (2019/20 av: 41.8ug/L)

29/7/20: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 70ug/L

23/9/20: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 70ug/L

28/10/20: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 64ug/L

25/11/20: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 63ug/L

24/2/21: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 67ug/L

24/3/21: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 64ug/L

27/4/21: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 72ug/L

26/5/21: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 62ug/L

23/6/21: Sellicks Beach (Capri Avenue) (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 70ug/L

14/6/22: Sellicks Beach Capri Ave. Bromodichloromethane 81ug/L (max), 54.2ug/L (av. 2021/22)

WHO Guideline level BDCM: 60ug/L (Australian Guideline for BDCM is included in the combined total of BDCM, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Bromoform. THM guideline is 250ug/L)

“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).

Since bromodichloromethane was listed in the Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, additional studies in rats have been identified. Administration of bromodichloromethane in the drinking water increased the combined incidence of benign and malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma) in males (George et al. 2002) and caused benign liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma) in females (Tumasonis et al. 1987).

Cancer Studies in Humans
The data available from epidemiological studies are inadequate to evaluate the relationship between human cancer and exposure specifically to bromodichloromethane. Several epidemiological studies indicated a possible association between ingestion of chlorinated drinking water (which typically contains bromodichloromethane) and increased risk of
cancer in humans, but these studies could not provide information on whether any observed effects were due to bromodichloromethane or to one or more of the hundreds of other disinfection by-products also present in chlorinated water (ATSDR 1989).” (1)

Sellicks Beach (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

9/11/11 Sellicks Beach  Chloral Hydrate 22.5ug/L

26/4/12 Sellicks Beach  Chloral Hydrate 20.7ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2022/23: Sellicks Beach (South Australia) – pH (alkaline)

2022/23: Sellicks Beach Capri Ave.  (South Australia) pH 8.51 (av.)

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.