2006 & 2010/12: Brinkley (South Australia) – Chloral Hydate, Trihalomethanes

Brinkley (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

Brinkley Chloral hydrate breaches in SA Water network 2000-2012 (16)

30/6/10 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 25ug/L

17/11/10 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 31.7ug/L

14/12/10 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 28.4ug/L

11/1/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 37.1ug/L

9/2/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 52.9ug/L

9/3/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 49.2ug/L

7/4/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 22ug/L

1/6/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 24.8ug/L

18/10/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 20.5ug/L

16/11/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 22.6ug/L

14/12/11 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 21.7ug/L

11/1/12 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 22ug/L

7/3/12 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 37.2ug/L

4/4/12 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 23.6ug/L

2/5/12 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 38.2ug/L

30/5/12 Brinkley  Chloral Hydrate 27.1ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

Based on health considerations, the concentration of chloral hydrate in drinking water
should not exceed 0.1 mg/L. Action to reduce chloral hydrate is encouraged, but must not compromise disinfection, as non-disinfected water poses significantly greater risk than chloral hydrate. (2011 ADWG)

Brinkley (South Australia) – Triahalomethanes

14/07/2006 Brinkley Jarvis Rd 6.7km from Hicks Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

11/01/2011 Brinkley Brinkley Hall Mulgundawah Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 255 ug/L

9/02/2011 Brinkley Brinkley Hall Mulgundawah Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 319 ug/L

9/03/2011 Brinkley Brinkley Hall Mulgundawah Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 253 ug/L

10/01/2017 Brinkley Brinkley Hall Mulgundawah Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 252 ug/L

24/01/2017 Brinkley Brinkley Hall Mulgundawah Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 308 ug/L

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm