2012/16 – Oak Valley (South Australia) – Nitrate, Lead, Chloride, Sodium, Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness

Oak Valley (South Australia) – Nitrate

10 September 2014: Oak Valley (South Australia) – Nitrate + Nitrite as NO3: 70mg/L

16 September 2015: Oak Valley (South Australia) – Nitrate + Nitrite as NO3: 70.9mg/L

24 August 2016: Oak Valley (South Australia) – Nitrate + Nitrite as NO3: 63.8mg/L

Excessive nitrates in the diet reduce blood’s ability to carry oxygen. In infants, this can cause the potentially life-threatening Blue Baby Syndrome, where the skin takes on a bluish colour and the child has trouble breathing. Housing provides bottled water for infants under three months in communities with high nitrates. Long term solutions would likely include asset replacements or upgrades or finding new water sources, or a combination of these.

Child Heath Levels Nitrate: 50mg/L. Adult Heath Levels Nitrate: 100mg/L

Oak Valley (South Australia) Lead

9 October 2013 – Oak Valley TS Rain Water (South Australia) – Lead 0.016mg/L

16 September 2015 – Oak Valley TS Rain Water Drinking Water (South Australia) – Lead 0.138mg/L

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011

Oak Valley (South Australia) – Chloride

11 September 2012: Oak Valley (South Australia) Chloride 596mg/L

9 October 2013: Oak Valley (South Australia) Chloride 663mg/L

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

2014/16 – Oak Valley – Sodium

10 September 2014: Oak Valley (South Australia) – Sodium 443mg/L

16 September 2015: Oak Valley (South Australia) – Sodium 253mg/L

24 August 2016: Oak Valley (South Australia) – Sodium 385mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

2012/16 – Oak Valley (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids

September 2012 – August 2016: 1460mg/L (average from 5 detections. Four above ADWG)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

2012/16 – Oak Valley (South Australia) – Hardness

2012/16: Oak Valley (South Australia) – Hardness average 344.6mg/L (5 detections out of 5 above guideline)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”