2012/17: Manna Hill (South Australia). Lead, Temperature

Manna Hill (South Australia) – Lead

Too Much Lead In Drinking Water (9 Feb 2012) “Lead levels are said to be too high in the drinking water of four outback towns on the Barrier Highway in South Australia. MP Dan van Holst Pellekaan says about 130 samples were checked from Manna Hill, Olary, Oodlawirra and Yunta last financial year. He says seven were above the recommended level of 0.01 micrograms per litre and one sample from Manna Hill was more than 10 times the level. Residents say they were not notified of any testing, nor the results. Mr van Holst Pellekaan says he asked SA Water
Minister Paul Caica late last year for an explanation”. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-02-09/lead-levels-drinking-water-barrierhighway/3820014?section=sa%E2%80%8F

The highest recorded level in Australia in recent years was recorded in South Australia
“In Mannahill, their highest reading was 0.104, more than 10 times the recommended safe level.”https://www.theflindersnews.com.au/news/local/news/general/contaminated-water-issue-to-beinvestigated/2480332.aspx

Mannahill – South Australia – Temperature


November 29 2016: Mannahill (South Australia) – Temperature 22C

February 7 2017: Mannahill (South Australia) – Temperature 28C


“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

Chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce undesirable chlorinated organic by-products, and higher temperatures increase the rate of these reactions.

Temperature can directly affect the growth and survival of microorganisms. In general the survival time of infectious bacteria and parasites is reduced as the temperature of the contaminated water increases.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011