2000/02 + 2011/12 +2016/17: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes, Chloral Hydrate, Dichloroacetic Acid, Temperature

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Blanchetown (South Australia)

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

14/11/2000 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 321 ug/L

12/12/2000 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 341 ug/L

9/01/2001 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 470 ug/L

13/02/2001 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 387 ug/L

13/03/2001 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 342 ug/L

10/04/2001 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 302 ug/L

15/05/2001 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 264 ug/L

12/03/2002 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 266 ug/L

14/05/2002 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 277 ug/L

19/01/2011 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 262 ug/L

8/02/2011 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 384 ug/L

9/03/2011 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 354 ug/L

14/12/2016 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 282 ug/L

11/1/2017 Blanchetown Trihalomethanes – Total 282 ug/L

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm

Blanchetown (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

27/6/12 Blanchetown  Chloral Hydrate 21.4ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

Blanchetown (South Australia) – Dichloroacetic Acid

September 21 2016 Blanchetown (South Australia) – Dichoroacetic Acid 104ug/L

Australian Guideline Level: Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council

Blanchetown – South Australia – Temperature

November 9 2016: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 21C

November 23 2016: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 22C

November 30 2016: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 22C

December 7 2016: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 23C

December 14 2016: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 24C

December 21 2016: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 23C

December 28 2016: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 26C

January 4 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 27C

January 11 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 28C

January 18 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 27C

January 24 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 28C

February 1 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 27C

February 8 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 27C

February 15 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 27C

February 22 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 25C

March 1 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 27C

March 8 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 25C

March 15 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 25C

March 22 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 26C

March 29 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 24C

April 5 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 23C

April 12 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 20C

April 19 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 21C

April 26 2017: Blanchetown (South Australia) – Temperature 21C

 

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).