Mannum (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate
27/10/11 Mannum Chloral Hydrate 25.8ug/L
8/3/12 Mannum Chloral Hydrate 31ug/L
15/3/12 Mannum Chloral Hydrate 28.3ug/L
3/5/12 Mannum Chloral Hydrate 22.5ug/L
10/5/12 Mannum Chloral Hydrate 28.4ug/L
31/5/12 Mannum Chloral Hydrate 20.7ug/L
7/6/12 Mannum Chloral Hydrate 27.8ug/L
Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.
2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L
2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L
Based on health considerations, the concentration of chloral hydrate in drinking water
should not exceed 0.1 mg/L. Action to reduce chloral hydrate is encouraged, but must not compromise disinfection, as non-disinfected water poses significantly greater risk than chloral hydrate. (2011 ADWG)
“Based on health considerations, the concentration of chloral hydrate in drinking water
should not exceed 0.02mg/L. Chloral hydrate may be formed as a by-product during chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material. Contamination of drinking water due to industrial spills is unlikely in Australia but has occurred overseas.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011
Mannum (South Australia) – Trichloroacetic Acid
Highest reading South Australia 2000-12 Trichloroacetic Acid: Mannum 116ug/L 17/5/12.
Australian Drinking Water Guideline: 100ug/L
“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration.
The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council
Mannum (South Australia) – Manganese
2017 17 January: Mannum (South Australia) – Manganese Soluble 0.2013mg/L
2017 15 February: Mannum (South Australia) – Manganese Total 0.2025mg/L
Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbling fixtures and laundry.