2013/19: Currie (Tasmania). Dichloroacetic Acid, Trichloroacetic Acid, Chlorine, Chloride, Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Cadmium

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Currie (Tasmania) – Chloroacetic Acids

Trichloroacetic Acid: 163μg/L Average 2013-14  (Australian Guideline Level 100μg/L)

Dichloroacetic Acid: 115μg/L Average 2013-14 (Australian Guideline Level 100μg/L)

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration.
The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

There are no epidemiological studies of TCA carcinogenicity in humans. Most of the human health data for chlorinated acetic acids concern components of complex mixtures of water disinfectant by-products. These complex mixtures of disinfectant by-products have been associated with increased potential for bladder, rectal, and colon cancer in humans [reviewed by Boorman et al. (1999); Mills et al. (1998)].” Ref: tmp/Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) CASRN 76-03-9 IRIS US EPA.htm

A Snapshot of Tasmanian Non-Microbiological Detections in Drinking Water July 2013-June 2014. Selected Breaches of Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (Friends of the Earth Australia)

Currie (Tasmania) – Chlorine (Total)

April 11 2016: Currie (Tasmania) – Chlorine (Total) 5.4mg/L

Chlorine (Free) ADWG Guideline: 5mg/L (Chlorine in chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L). Chlorine dissociates in water to form free chlorine, which consists of aqueous molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion.

Chlorine (Total) ADWG Guideline 5mg/L (chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L): The term total chlorine refers to the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine present in a sample.

Currie (Tasmania) – Chloride

August 6 2015 Currie (Tasmania)  Chloride 290mg/L

August 18 2015 Currie (Tasmania)  Chloride 270mg/L

November 15 2015 Currie (Tasmania)  Chloride 290mg/L

February 2 2016 Currie (Tasmania)  Chloride 280mg/L

May 4 2016 Currie (Tasmania)  Chloride 250mg/L

17/10/19: Currie (Tasmania)  Chloride 255mg/L

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

Currie – Tasmania – Hardness

August 6 2015: Currie (Tasmania) – Hardness – Carbonate 430mg/L O2

August 6 2015: Currie (Tasmania) – Hardness (Total Cations) – Carbonate 416mg/L

November 15 2015: Currie (Tasmania) – Hardness as CaCO3 430mg/L

February 2 2016: Currie (Tasmania) – Hardness as CaCO3 410mg/L

May 4 2016: Currie (Tasmania) – Hardness as CaCO3 420mg/L

9/7/19: Currie (Tasmania) – Hardness 305mg/L

1/10/19: Currie (Tasmania) – Hardness 310mg/L


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Currie – Tasmania – Total Dissolved Solids

August 18 2015: Currie (Tasmania) – Total Dissolved Solids (by calculation) 890mg/L

August 6 2015: Currie (Tasmania) – Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 880mg/L

November 15 2015: Currie (Tasmania) – Total Dissolved Solids (Fixed) 850mg/L

February 2 2016: Currie (Tasmania) – Total Dissolved Solids (Fixed) 870mg/L

May 4 2016: Currie (Tasmania) – Total Dissolved Solids (Fixed) 810mg/L

9/7/19: Currie (Tasmania) – Total Dissolved Solids 801mg/L

1/10/19: Currie (Tasmania) – Total Dissolved Solids 851mg/L


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Currie – Tasmania – Cadmium

9/7/19: Currie (Tasmania) – Cadmium 0.0016mg/L (80% of guideline level)

ADWG Cadmium Guideline. 0.002mg/L

The primary route of exposure of cadmium is via contaminated water or food. Fertiliser can be a source of excessive cadmium as can rainwater tanks. It has been linked to cancer, lung disorders, kidney disease and autoimmune disease.