Kalkie (Queensland) – Cadmium.
2013/14: Kalkie (Queensland) 0.01mg/L (highest level detected)
Bundaberg Regional Council Drinking Water Quality Management Plan 2013/14
On 17 June 2015 during routine analysis, it was found that a sample taken in the Kalkie WSA exceeded the ADWG health value of 0.002mg/L for Cadmium. The reported level was 0.0023mg/L.
Bundaberg Regional Council Drinking Water Quality Management Plan 2014/15
ADWG Cadmium Guideline. 0.002mg/L
The primary route of exposure of cadmium is via contaminated water or food. Fertiliser can be a source of excessive cadmium as can rainwater tanks. It has been linked to cancer, lung disorders, kidney disease and autoimmune disease.
Kalkie (Queensland) Trihalomethanes
Kalkie WSA: The raw water supply for this WSA originates from the Burnett River, which at times, can contain varying elevated levels of natural organics. A total of twenty (20) samples were taken for THM analysis over the year within the Kalkie WSA. Two (2) of these exceeded the ADWG health value of 250μg/L. The average THM value was around 178μg/L
Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)
Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. US EPA
Kalkie (Queensland) Lead
On 17 June 2015 during routine analysis, it was found that a sample taken in the Kalkie WSA exceeded the ADWG Health value of 0.01mg/L for Lead. The reported level was 0.012mg/L.
2016/17: Kalkie (Queensland) Lead 0.01mg/L
1/9/20: Kalkie (Queensland) Lead 0.026mg/L (max), 0.0035mg/L (av)
Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L
“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.
Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011