Wayatinah (Tasmania) – E.coli

2016/17: Wayatinah – E.coli. 1 exceedence. Poor microbiological performance can be attributed to a lack of barriers and the susceptibility to changes in quality from the Lake Liapootah Penstock. The risk to public health is mitigated through the communication of the Permanent BWA to customers.

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Trichloroacetic Acid

July 27 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 150ug/L

August 17 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 130ug/L

August 31 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 220ug/L

September 21 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 150ug/L

October 19 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 150ug/L

November 16 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 110ug/L

December 31 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 130ug/L

January 11 2016: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 110ug/L

2016/17: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 140ug/L (max). 3 Trichloroacetic Acid breaches. DBPs were detected above the ADWG health limits in 2016 due to a lack of filtration barriers, precursors to DBPs such as organic matter are not removed. Chlorine residuals are maintained to provide disinfection.

2/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 118ug/L

27/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 95ug/L

19/10/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 110ug/L

2/11/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 103ug/L

2020/21: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 118ug/L (max), 75ug/L (mean)

Trichloroacetic Acid: 110μg/L (Australian Guideline Level 100μg/L)

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration.
The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

There are no epidemiological studies of TCA carcinogenicity in humans. Most of the human health data for chlorinated acetic acids concern components of complex mixtures of water disinfectant by-products. These complex mixtures of disinfectant by-products have been associated with increased potential for bladder, rectal, and colon cancer in humans [reviewed by Boorman et al. (1999); Mills et al. (1998)].” Ref: tmp/Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) CASRN 76-03-9 IRIS US EPA.htm

A Snapshot of Tasmanian Non-Microbiological Detections in Drinking Water July 2013-June 2014. Selected Breaches of Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (Friends of the Earth Australia)

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Total HAA’s

5/7/19: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 107ug/L

20/1/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 173ug/L

2/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 187ug/L

27/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 156ug/L

19/10/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 169ug/L

2/11/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 173ug/L

Australian Guidelines Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

Wayatinah – Tasmania – Iron

August 10 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Iron 1150ug/L

August 10 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Iron (Dissolved) 804ug/L

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Turbidity

2016/17: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Turbidity 10.2NTU (max), 2.08NTU (mean)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Colour

2016/17: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Colour 24 HU (max), 15.33 HU (mean)

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…

2013-21: Wayatinah (Tasmania). Trichloroacetic Acid + Total Haloacetic Acids, Iron, Colour, Turbidity

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – E.coli

2016/17: Wayatinah – E.coli. 1 exceedence. Poor microbiological performance can be attributed to a lack of barriers and the susceptibility to changes in quality from the Lake Liapootah Penstock. The risk to public health is mitigated through the communication of the Permanent BWA to customers.

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Trichloroacetic Acid

July 27 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 150ug/L

August 17 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 130ug/L

August 31 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 220ug/L

September 21 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 150ug/L

October 19 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 150ug/L

November 16 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 110ug/L

December 31 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 130ug/L

January 11 2016: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 110ug/L

2016/17: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 140ug/L (max). 3 Trichloroacetic Acid breaches. DBPs were detected above the ADWG health limits in 2016 due to a lack of filtration barriers, precursors to DBPs such as organic matter are not removed. Chlorine residuals are maintained to provide disinfection.

2/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 118ug/L

27/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 95ug/L

19/10/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 110ug/L

2/11/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 103ug/L

2020/21: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Trichloroacetic Acid 118ug/L (max), 75ug/L (mean)

Trichloroacetic Acid: 110μg/L (Australian Guideline Level 100μg/L)

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration.
The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

There are no epidemiological studies of TCA carcinogenicity in humans. Most of the human health data for chlorinated acetic acids concern components of complex mixtures of water disinfectant by-products. These complex mixtures of disinfectant by-products have been associated with increased potential for bladder, rectal, and colon cancer in humans [reviewed by Boorman et al. (1999); Mills et al. (1998)].” Ref: tmp/Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) CASRN 76-03-9 IRIS US EPA.htm

A Snapshot of Tasmanian Non-Microbiological Detections in Drinking Water July 2013-June 2014. Selected Breaches of Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (Friends of the Earth Australia)

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Total HAA’s

5/7/19: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 107ug/L

20/1/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 173ug/L

2/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 187ug/L

27/7/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 156ug/L

19/10/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 169ug/L

2/11/20: Wayatinah (Tasmania) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7): 173ug/L

Australian Guidelines Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

Wayatinah – Tasmania – Iron

August 10 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Iron 1150ug/L

August 10 2015: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Iron (Dissolved) 804ug/L

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Turbidity

2016/17: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Turbidity 10.2NTU (max), 2.08NTU (mean)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap

Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Colour

2016/17: Wayatinah (Tasmania) – Colour 24 HU (max), 15.33 HU (mean)

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…