Fingal Tasmania (Lead)
Highest Lead Level 2013/14: 50μg/L
“The Fingal graph is similar to that of Cornwall, possibly indicating environmental sources as the communities are located in close to each other (18km). Another closely located community Avoca, had a lead spike of 59.9μg/L in Nov 2013.”
Australian Drinking Water Guideline for Lead is 10μg/L
A Snapshot of Tasmanian Non-Microbiological Detections in Drinking Water July 2013-June 2014. Friends of the Earth Australia October 2015
“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.
Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…
Lead can be absorbed by the body through inhalation, ingestion or placental transfer. In adults,
approximately 10% of ingested lead is absorbed but in children this figure can be 4 to 5 times higher. After absorption, the lead is distributed in soft tissue such as the kidney, liver, and bone marrow where it has a biological half-life in adults of less than 40 days, and in skeletal bone where it can persist for 20 to 30 years.
In humans, lead is a cumulative poison that can severely affect the central nervous system. Infants, fetuses and pregnant women are most susceptible. Placental transfer of lead occurs in humans as early as the 12th week of gestation and continues throughout development.
Many epidemiological studies have been carried out on the effects of lead exposure on the intellectual development of children. Although there are some conflicting results, on balance the studies demonstrate that exposure to lead can adversely affect intelligence.
These results are supported by experiments using young primates, where exposure to lead causes significant behavioural and learning difficulties of the same type as those observed in children.
Other adverse effects associated with exposure to high amounts of lead include kidney damage, interference with the production of red blood cells, and interference with the metabolism of calcium needed for bone formation…” ADWG 2011
Fingal – Tasmania – Temperature
December 1 2015: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 22.9C
December 16 2015: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 23C
December 22 2015: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 22.8C
December 29 2015: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 20.4C
January 5 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 21.4C
January 12 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 22.9C
January 19 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 24.2C
January 27 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 24.2C
February 9 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 24.9C
February 16 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 23.9C
February 23 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 22.8C
March 4 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 22.6C
March 8 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 23.4C
March 15 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 23.2C
March 22 2016: Fingal (Tasmania) – Temperature 20.7C
“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.
The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.
Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…
Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…
The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).