2015/18 – Bell (Queensland) – Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Sodium, Plasticiser

Bell – Queensland – Hardness

2015/16: Bell (Queensland) – Hardness 321mg/L (Highest Detection), (314.83av)

2016/17: Bell (Queensland) – Hardness 313mg/L (Highest Detection), (310av)

2017/18: Bell (Queensland) Hardness 4/24 non-compliant samples


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

2015/16 – Bell (Queensland) – Total Dissolved Solids

2015/16: Bell – Queensland Total Dissolved Solids 1050mg/L (high) 1016.67av.
2016/17: Bell – Queensland Total Dissolved Solids 1040mg/L (high) 1018.33 av.
2017/18 Bell- Queensland Total Dissolved Solids 5/24 non-compliant samples


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

2015/16 – Bell – (Queensland) – Sodium

2015/16:  Bell (Queensland)  Sodium 272mg/L (high), 268mg/L (average)

2016/17:  Bell (Queensland)  Sodium 280mg/L (high), 272.5mg/L (average)

2017/18: Bell (Queensland) Sodium 5/24 non compliant samples.

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Bell (Queensland) – Plasticiser

2017/18: N-Butyl-Benzenesulfonamide

4/6 Non compliant samples. Not reported to regulator. Not seen as a public health risk

Western Downs Regional Council Drinking Water Quality Management Plan 2017/18

N-Butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS), a plasticizer used commercially in the polymerization of polyamide compounds. It is neurotoxic and has been found to induce spastic myelopathy in rabbits.