2009/20 – Boulia (Queensland) – Iron, Total Dissolved Solids, Sodium, Turbidity, Colour, Manganese

Boulia (Queensland)  – Iron

2009/17: Boulia (Queensland)  – Iron 1.73mg/L (Highest Level  Only)

2009/17: Boulia (Queensland) – Iron 0.134mg/L (Average Level)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Boulia – Queensland – Total Dissolved Solids

2009/17: Boolia (Queensland) – Total Dissolved Solids 1458 μS/cm (Maximum Level)

2009/17: Boolia (Queensland) – Total Dissolved Solids 1363 μS/cm (Average Level)

2019/20: Boolia (Queensland) – Total Dissolved Solids 740mg/L (max), 720mg/L (av.)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Boolia (Queensland) – Sodium

2009/17:  Boolia (Queensland)  Sodium 190mg/L (Maximum)

2009/17:  Boolia (Queensland)  Sodium 178.7mg/L (average)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Boulia – Queensland – Turbidity

2009/17: Boulia (Queensland) – Turbidity 31 NTU (Maximum detection)

2009/17: Boulia (Queensland) – Turbidity 8.36 NTU (Average detection)

2019/20: Boulia (Queensland) – Turbidity 14 NTU (max), 5.89 NTU (av.)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap

Boulia (Queensland) – Colour

2009/17: Boulia (Queensland) – Colour 57 HU (Highest Level Only)

2009/17: Boulia (Queensland) – Colour 18.03 HU (Average level)

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…

2009/17 – Boulia (Queensland) – Manganese

2009/17 – Boulia (Queensland) – Manganese 0.17mg/L (high), av. 0.043mg/L (mean)

Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbing fixtures