2015/16 – Rossarden (Tasmania) – E.coli, Lead, Aluminium, Colour, Iron, Temperature, Turbidity, Zinc

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Rossarden – DO NOT CONSUME

Rossarden – (Tasmania) – E.coli

January 12 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – 4.7 MPN100/mL

February 2 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – 27.2 MPN100/mL

February 9 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – 1 MPN100/mL

February 14 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – 2 MPN100/mL

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Rossarden (Tasmania) – Lead

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Lead 0.108mg/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Lead 0.0103mg/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Lead 0.0098mg/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Lead 0.0331mg/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Lead 0.0248mg/L

October 7 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Lead 0.0135mg/L

November 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Lead 0.0163mg/L

November 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Lead (Dissolved) 0.0106mg/L

November 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Lead 0.0096mg/L

July 2 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Lead 0.0091mg/L

Based on health considerations, the concentration of lead in drinking water should not
exceed 0.01 mg/L.

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…

Lead can be absorbed by the body through inhalation, ingestion or placental transfer. In adults,
approximately 10% of ingested lead is absorbed but in children this figure can be 4 to 5 times higher. After absorption, the lead is distributed in soft tissue such as the kidney, liver, and bone marrow where it has a biological half-life in adults of less than 40 days, and in skeletal bone where it can persist for 20 to 30 years.

In humans, lead is a cumulative poison that can severely affect the central nervous system. Infants, fetuses and pregnant women are most susceptible. Placental transfer of lead occurs in humans as early as the 12th week of gestation and continues throughout development.

Many epidemiological studies have been carried out on the effects of lead exposure on the intellectual development of children. Although there are some conflicting results, on balance the studies demonstrate that exposure to lead can adversely affect intelligence.

These results are supported by experiments using young primates, where exposure to lead causes significant behavioural and learning difficulties of the same type as those observed in children.

Other adverse effects associated with exposure to high amounts of lead include kidney damage, interference with the production of red blood cells, and interference with the metabolism of calcium needed for bone formation…” ADWG 2011

Rossarden (Tasmania) – Aluminium

October 7 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Aluminium 0.811 mg/L

According to the ADWG, no health guideline has been adopted for Aluminium, but that the issue is still open to review. Aluminium can come from natural geological sources or from the use of aluminium salts as coagulants in water treatment plants. According to the ADWG “A well-operated water filtration plant (even using aluminium as a flocculant) can achieve aluminium concentrations in the finished water of less than 0.1 mg/L.

The most common form of aluminium in water treatment plants is Aluminium Sulfate (Alum). Alum can be supplied as a bulk liquid or in granular form. It is used at water treatment plants as a coagulant to remove turbidity, microorganisms, organic matter and inorganic chemicals. If water is particularly dirty an Alum dose of as high as 500mg/L could occur. There is also concern that other metals may also exist in refined alum.

While the ADWG mentions that there is considerable evidence that Aluminium is neurotoxic and can pass the gut barrier to accumulate in the blood, leading to a condition called encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) and that Aluminium has been associated with Parkinsonism dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the NHMRC, whilst also acknowledging studies which have linked Aluminium with Alzheimer disease, has not granted Aluminium a NOEL (No Observable Effect Level) due to insufficient and contradictory data. Without a NOEL, a health guideline cannot be established. The NHMRC has also stated that if new information comes to hand, a health guideline may be established in the future.

In communication with Aluminium expert Dr Chris Exley (Professor in Bioinorganic Chemistry
The Birchall Centre, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire UK) in March 2013 regarding high levels of Aluminium detected in the South Western Victorian town of Hamilton
“It is my opinion that any value above 0.5 mg/L is totally unacceptable and a potential health risk. Where such values are maintained over days, weeks or even months, as indeed is indicated by the data you sent to me, these represent a significant health risk to all consumers. While consumers may not experience any short term health effects the result of longer term exposure to elevated levels of aluminium in potable waters may be a significant increase in the body burden of aluminium in these individuals. This artificially increased body burden will not return to ‘normal’ levels when the Al content of the potable water returns to normal but will act as a new platform level from which the Al body burden will continue to increase with age.

Rossarden –  (Tasmania) – Colour

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Colour Apparent 64 PCU

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 77 PCU

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Colour Apparent 36 PCU

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 88 PCU

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Colour Apparent 46 PCU

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 183 PCU

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Colour Apparent 37 PCU

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 147 PCU

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Colour Apparent 29 PCU

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 138 PCU

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Colour Apparent 91 PCU

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 43 PCU

August 12 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 47 PCU

October 4 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 45 PCU

November 18 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 31 PCU

March 9 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 49 PCU

June 14 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Colour Apparent 104 PCU

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…” ADWG 2011

Rossarden – Tasmania – Iron

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 2650ug/L

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 550ug/L

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 309ug/L

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 1340ug/L

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 402ug/L

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron (Dissolved) 327ug/L

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron (Dissolved) 333ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 2980ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 7680ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 470ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 575ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 300ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 575ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 363ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 313ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 1180ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 1370ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 9920ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 667ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 563ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 318ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 428ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron (Dissolved) 425ug/L

July 8 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron (Dissolved) 338ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 1120ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 418ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 522ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 317ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 3480ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 2080ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 7230ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St (Dissolved) – Iron 361ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – (Dissolved) Iron 474ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 389ug/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 542ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 424ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 370ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 720ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 2050ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 2600ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 6690ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 736ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 537ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 436ug/L

July 22 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 464ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 2310ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 301ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 2080ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 1500ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 6350ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 803ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 936ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 356ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved)  360ug/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron (Dissolved) 396ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 1230ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 929ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 1670ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 8240ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 4040ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 1830ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schnell St – Iron 448ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schnell St – Iron 401ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron (Dissolved) 427ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron (Dissolved) 465ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 478ug/L

August 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 472ug/L

August 12 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 415ug/L

September 9 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 899ug/L

September 9 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 420ug/L

September 9 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 2730ug/L

September 9 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 1500ug/L

September 9 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 307ug/L

October 4 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 1230ug/L

October 7 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 639ug/L

October 7 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 2380ug/L

October 7 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 20200ug/L

October 7 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 323ug/L

October 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Storage Res – Iron 388ug/L

October 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Iron 403ug/L

October 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 605ug/L

October 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron 2750ug/L

October 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Nevin St – Iron 414ug/L

October 18 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 471ug/L

November 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron (Dissolved) 406ug/L

November 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Baker St – Iron (Dissolved) 454ug/L

November 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron (Dissolved) 321ug/L

March 9 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) Lee St – Iron 425ug/L

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Rossarden – Tasmania – Temperature

February 9 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania) – Temperature 20.7C

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

Rossarden – Tasmania – Turbidity

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Schell St  – Turbidity 6.64 NTU

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 6.52 NTU

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Baker St  – Turbidity 13.1 NTU

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Baker St  – Turbidity 34.2 NTU

August 11 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 6.4 NTU

September 1 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 36.6 NTU

September 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 13 NTU

September 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 21.3 NTU

October 4 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 6.4 NTU

October 6 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 7.68 NTU

October 20 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 44.1 NTU

October 27 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 26.6 NTU

November 3 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 92.9 NTU

January 12 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 5.43 NTU

January 27 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 28.5 NTU

February 9 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 10.5 NTU

February 16 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 29.2 NTU

February 23 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 7.92 NTU

March 1 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 5.92 NTU

March 8 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 8.01 NTU

March 22 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 19.4 NTU

March 30 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 40.7 NTU

April 12 2016: Rossarden (Tasmania)  Lee St  – Turbidity 5.11 NTU

 

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.
Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.

Rossarden (Tasmania) – Zinc

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Zinc 14.4mg/L

July 2 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Zinc (Dissolved) 3.76mg/L

July 15 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Zinc 4.42mg/L

July 29 2015: Rossarden (Tasmania) Schell St – Zinc 3.68 mg/L

Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of zinc in drinking water should
be less than 3 mg/L. No health-based guideline value is proposed for zinc.

Zinc is widely distributed and occurs in small amounts in almost all rocks, commonly as the sulfide. It is used as a coating to prevent corrosion of iron and steel products, and in the manufacture of brass. Zinc oxide is an important component in the manufacture of paint and rubber products, including tyres.

In surface and ground waters, the concentration of zinc from natural leaching is usually less than 0.01 mg/L. Tap water can contain much higher concentrations as a result of corrosion of zinc-coated pipes and fittings. Zinc concentrations in galvanised iron rainwater tanks are typically 2 mg/L to 4 mg/L but have been reported as high as 11 mg/L.

Taste problems can occur if the zinc concentration in drinking water exceeds 3 mg/L. Water with a zinc concentration above 5 mg/L tends to be opalescent, develops a greasy film when boiled, and has an undesirable dry ‘metallic’ taste. Zinc is present in plant and animal tissues, and food is the major source of zinc intake. Drinking water usually makes a negligible contribution to total intake. 2011 ADWG