2013/21 – Winnaleah (Tasmania) – E.coli, Lead, Trichloroacetic Acid, pH, Temperature, Turbidity

Winnaleah – (Tasmania) – E.coli

July 14 2015: Winnaleah (Tasmania) – 1 MPN100/mL

August 11 2015: Winnaleah (Tasmania) – 1 MPN100/mL

March 3 2016: Winnaleah (Tasmania) – 1 MPN100/mL

April 19 2016: Winnaleah (Tasmania) – 1 MPN100/mL

May 17 2016: Winnaleah (Tasmania) – 6.3 MPN100/mL

June 15 2016: Winnaleah (Tasmania) – 1 MPN100/mL

2016/17: Winneleah (Tasmania). 4 E.coli exceedences during year. Poor microbiological performance can be attributed to a lack of barriers and the susceptibility to changes in quality from the Winnaleah Bore. The risk to public health is mitigated through the communication of the Permanent PHA to customers.

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Winneleah (Tasmania) – Lead

The RTI data reveals that Lead continued to be a problem in the small community of Winneleah, particularly around February/March in 2014. So serious was the problem that an alternative water supply option was provided. According to a story nationally aired by the 7.30 Report: https://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2015/s4222652.htm

“After testing 179 water, rock and soil samples, they’ve found the source water is clean and the lead contamination is coming from old pipes, infrastructure and the household plumbing. MARK TAYLOR: The natural catchment waters are not contaminating the drinking water supply. That contamination is coming from the infrastructure that is in the town and in people’s homes. MICHAEL ATKIN: The most alarming finding is lead levels inside houses in Pioneer are 22 times above the safe drinking standard. MARK TAYLOR: It’s pretty clear that these numbers that we can see coming out of people’s taps are the worst that we’ve seen in Australia.

Winneleah: Highest Lead detection 2013/14: 5.72ug/L

A Snapshot of Tasmanian Non-Microbiological Detections in Drinking Water July 2013-June 2014. Selected Breaches of Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Winnaleah (Tasmania) – Trichloroacetic Acid

23/2/21: Winnaleah (Tasmania) Total Trichloroacetic Acid 106 ug/L

Australian Guidelines Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…

Winnaleah (Tasmania) – pH (acidic)

Average pH: 2015 July-2016 June: 5.637 pH units

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.

Winnaleah – Tasmania – Temperature

December 15 2015: Winnaleah (Tasmania) – Temperature 25.8C


“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

2016/17 – Winnaleah (Tasmania) – Turbidity

2016/17 – Winneleah (Tasmania) – Turbidity 9.99 NTU (max), 1.48 NTU (mean)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap