Brighton (Tasmania) – Antimony

8/7/20: Brighton (Tasmania) Antimony  0.005mg/L.

Based on health considerations, the concentration of antimony in drinking water should not
exceed the limit of determination of 0.003 mg/L.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Antimony, as the trivalent (Sb(III)) or pentavalent (Sb(V)) salts, has occasionally been detected in
natural source waters. Occurrences are more common in areas near lead or copper smelting operations.
Antimony–tin solder is beginning to replace lead solder and hence exposure to antimony in drinking water may increase in the future.
Antimony alloys and compounds are used in semiconductors, batteries, anti-friction compounds, ammunition, cable sheathing, and flame-proofing compounds. Antimony salts are used in glass, and in the manufacture of ceramics and pottery.
Studies overseas have generally found low concentrations in drinking water, typically less than
0.005 mg/L, but higher concentrations have been reported occasionally.
There are few data available on antimony concentrations in food. The United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has suggested that average daily consumption of antimony in food is about 0.018 mg.

Brighton (Tasmania) – Chlorine Residual

28/9/15: Brighton (Tasmania) Chlorine Residual 5mg/L

Based on health considerations, the guideline value for total chlorine in drinking water is 5 mg/L.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Chlorine dissociates in water to form free chlorine, which consists of aqueous molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion. Chlorine and hypochlorites are toxic to microorganisms and are used extensively as disinfectants for drinking water supplies. Chlorine is also used to disinfect sewage and wastewater, swimming pool water, in-plant supplies, and industrial cooling water.

Chlorine has an odour threshold in drinking water of about 0.6 mg/L, but some people are particularly sensitive and can detect amounts as low as 0.2 mg/L. Water authorities may need to exceed the odour threshold value of 0.6 mg/L in order to maintain an effective disinfectant residual.

In the food industry, chlorine and hypochlorites are used for general sanitation and for odour control. Large amounts of chlorine are used in the production of industrial and domestic disinfectants and bleaches, and it is used in the synthesis of a large range of chemical compounds.

Free chlorine reacts with ammonia and certain nitrogen compounds to form combined chlorine. With ammonia, chlorine forms chloramines (monochloramine, dichloramine and nitrogen trichloride or trichloramine) (APHA 2012). Chloramines are used for disinfection but are weaker oxidising agents than free chlorine.

Free chlorine and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously (APHA 2012). The term totalchlorine refers to the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine present in a sample.

Chlorine (Free) ADWG Guideline: 5mg/L (Chlorine in chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L). Chlorine dissociates in water to form free chlorine, which consists of aqueous molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion.

Chlorine (Total) ADWG Guideline 5mg/L (chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L): The term total chlorine refers to the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine present in a sample

Brighton – Tasmania – Turbidity

January 18 2016: Brighton (Tasmania) Jordan River- Turbidity 14.2 NTU

2016/17: Brighton (Tasmania) – Turbidity 8 NTU (max), 0.42 NTU (mean)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.
Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.

2015/17 + 2020 – Brighton (Tasmania) – Antimony, Chlorine Residual, Turbidity

Brighton (Tasmania) – Antimony

8/7/20: Brighton (Tasmania) Antimony  0.005mg/L.

Based on health considerations, the concentration of antimony in drinking water should not
exceed the limit of determination of 0.003 mg/L.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Antimony, as the trivalent (Sb(III)) or pentavalent (Sb(V)) salts, has occasionally been detected in
natural source waters. Occurrences are more common in areas near lead or copper smelting operations.
Antimony–tin solder is beginning to replace lead solder and hence exposure to antimony in drinking water may increase in the future.
Antimony alloys and compounds are used in semiconductors, batteries, anti-friction compounds, ammunition, cable sheathing, and flame-proofing compounds. Antimony salts are used in glass, and in the manufacture of ceramics and pottery.
Studies overseas have generally found low concentrations in drinking water, typically less than
0.005 mg/L, but higher concentrations have been reported occasionally.
There are few data available on antimony concentrations in food. The United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has suggested that average daily consumption of antimony in food is about 0.018 mg.

Brighton (Tasmania) – Chlorine Residual

28/9/15: Brighton (Tasmania) Chlorine Residual 5mg/L

Based on health considerations, the guideline value for total chlorine in drinking water is 5 mg/L.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Chlorine dissociates in water to form free chlorine, which consists of aqueous molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion. Chlorine and hypochlorites are toxic to microorganisms and are used extensively as disinfectants for drinking water supplies. Chlorine is also used to disinfect sewage and wastewater, swimming pool water, in-plant supplies, and industrial cooling water.

Chlorine has an odour threshold in drinking water of about 0.6 mg/L, but some people are particularly sensitive and can detect amounts as low as 0.2 mg/L. Water authorities may need to exceed the odour threshold value of 0.6 mg/L in order to maintain an effective disinfectant residual.

In the food industry, chlorine and hypochlorites are used for general sanitation and for odour control. Large amounts of chlorine are used in the production of industrial and domestic disinfectants and bleaches, and it is used in the synthesis of a large range of chemical compounds.

Free chlorine reacts with ammonia and certain nitrogen compounds to form combined chlorine. With ammonia, chlorine forms chloramines (monochloramine, dichloramine and nitrogen trichloride or trichloramine) (APHA 2012). Chloramines are used for disinfection but are weaker oxidising agents than free chlorine.

Free chlorine and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously (APHA 2012). The term totalchlorine refers to the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine present in a sample.

Chlorine (Free) ADWG Guideline: 5mg/L (Chlorine in chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L). Chlorine dissociates in water to form free chlorine, which consists of aqueous molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion.

Chlorine (Total) ADWG Guideline 5mg/L (chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L): The term total chlorine refers to the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine present in a sample

Brighton – Tasmania – Turbidity

January 18 2016: Brighton (Tasmania) Jordan River- Turbidity 14.2 NTU

2016/17: Brighton (Tasmania) – Turbidity 8 NTU (max), 0.42 NTU (mean)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.
Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.