2000/12 – 2016/17 – Adelaide (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane, Dichlorobromoform (THM’s),Temperature

Adelaide – South Australia – Bromodichloromethane, Dichlorobromoform (THM’s), Temperature

The top dozen Adelaide hotspots highlighting locations of suburbs/communities with the most breaches to drinking water quality between 2000-2012.

1. Craigmore, 2. Happy Valley, 3. Seaford Rise, 4. Blakeview, 5. Elizabeth Downs, 6. Andrews Farm, 7. Enfield, 8. Blackwood, 9. Chandlers Hill, 10. Glenalta, 11. Ottoway, 12. Belair

97% of breaches to ADWG/WHO Guidelines over this time period was for the Trihalomethanes,
Bromodichloromethane/Dichlorobromoform, yet how many people in Adelaide have even heard of the these substances or known that they have been drinking them? Marked increases have occurred in Bromodichloromethane/Dichlorobromoform detections in 2011/12.

“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).

Since bromodichloromethane was listed in the Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, additional studies in rats have been identified. Administration of bromodichloromethane in the drinking water increased the combined incidence of benign and malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma) in males (George et al. 2002) and caused benign liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma) in females (Tumasonis et al. 1987).

Cancer Studies in Humans
The data available from epidemiological studies are inadequate to evaluate the relationship between human cancer and exposure specifically to bromodichloromethane. Several epidemiological studies indicated a possible association between ingestion of chlorinated drinking water (which typically contains bromodichloromethane) and increased risk of
cancer in humans, but these studies could not provide information on whether any observed effects were due to bromodichloromethane or to one or more of the hundreds of other disinfection by-products also present in chlorinated water (ATSDR 1989).” (1)

Source: SA Water Drinking Water Quality January 2000 – July 2012 Amended Version: October 21 2012. Friends of the Earth Australia

December 1 2016: Adelaide (South Australia) Sturt St – Temperature 21C

December 8 2016: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 21C

December 15 2016: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 23C

December 22 2016: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 21C

December 29 2016: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 22C

January 5 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Sturt St – Temperature 23C

January 5 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 22C

January 12 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 24C

January 19 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 23C

January 25 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 24C

February 2 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Sturt St – Temperature 23C

February 2 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 24C

February 9 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 25C

February 16 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 24C

February 23 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 22C

March 1 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Sturt St – Temperature 24C

March 1 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 24C

March 9 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 24C

March 16 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 23C

March 22 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 20C

March 30 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Sturt St – Temperature 22C

March 30 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 22C

April 6 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 21C

April 12 2017: Adelaide (South Australia) Flinders St – Temperature 22C

 

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).