2016/20 – Geranium (South Australia) – Hardness, Chloride, Sodium, Total Dissolved Solids

Geranium (South Australia) Hardness

August 2 2016: Geranium (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 260mg/L

October 25 2016: Geranium (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 250mg/L

February 14 2017: Geranium (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 242mg/L

May 9 2017: Geranium (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 244mg/L

2018/19: Geranium (South Australia) Hardness 267mg/L (max), 257.5mg/L (av)

2018/19: Geranium (South Australia) Hardness as CaCO3 595mg/L (max), 578.25mg/L (av)

2019/20: Geranium (South Australia) Total Hardness as CaCO3 580mg/L (max), 576.25mg/L av.

2019/20: Geranium (South Australia) Calcium Hardness as CaCO3 257mg/L (max), 254.75mg/L av.


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Geranium (South Australia) – Chloride

August 2 2016 Geranium (South Australia)  Chloride 472mg/L

October 25 2016 Geranium (South Australia)  Chloride 476mg/L

February 14 2017 Geranium (South Australia)  Chloride 472mg/L

May 9 2017 Geranium (South Australia)  Chloride 483mg/L

2018/19: Geranium (South Australia) Chloride 489mg/L (max), 483.75mg/L (av.)

12/5/20: Geranium (South Australia) Chloride 501mg/L (max). 2019/20 av. 489.25mg/L av.

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Geranium (South Australia) – Sodium

2/8/16 Geranium  Sodium 299mg/L

25/10/16 Geranium  Sodium 322mg/L

14/2/17 Geranium  Sodium 315mg/L

9/5/17 Geranium  Sodium 332mg/L

2018/19: Geranium (South Australia). Sodium 355mg/L (max), 331mg/L (av)

12/5/20: Geranium (South Australia) Sodium 331mg/L (max), 327.25mg/L (av.)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Geranium – South Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

2018/19 Geranium (South Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1500mg/L (max), 1425mg/L (av)

2019/20: Geranium (South Australia) Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 1510mg/L (max), 1457.5mg/L av.


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011