2016/22 – Naracoorte (South Australia) – Lead, Bromoform, Chloride, Sodium, Iron, Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness, Turbidity, Haloacetonitriles

2020 Naracoorte (South Australia) – Lead

21/8/20: Naracoorte Butler Tce Lead – Total 0.0166mg/L

2/11/20: Naracoorte Butler Tce Lead – Total 0.0115mg/L

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011

Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform

6/4/20 Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 168ug/L. (2019/20 av. 152ug/L)

3/8/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 150ug/L

31/8/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 146ug/L

6/10/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 153ug/L

26/10/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 148ug/L

30/11/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 147ug/L

4/1/21: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 145ug/L

1/2/21: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 158ug/L

1/3/21: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 148ug/L

6/4/21: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 145ug/L

3/5/21: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 149ug/L

7/6/21: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 165ug/L

28/6/21: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 158ug/L

2/5/22: Naracoorte (South Australia) Bromoform 170ug/L (max), 153.73ug/L (av. 2021/22)

WHO Bromoform Guideline 100ug/L. Bromoform is a Trihalomethane, which combined with Dibromochloromethane, Bromodichloromethane and Chloroform amount to Total Trihalomethanes. Trihalomethanes (combined) have an Australian Guideline of 250ug/L

Natural production of bromoform by phytoplankton and seaweeds in the ocean is thought to be its predominant source in the environment.[5] However, locally significant amounts of bromoform enter the environment formed as disinfection byproducts known as trihalomethanes when chlorine is added to drinking water to kill bacteria. It is somewhat soluble in water and readily evaporates into the air. Bromoform is the main trihalomethane produced in beachfront salt water swimming pools with concentrations as high as 1.2 ppm (parts per million). Concentrations in freshwater pools are 1000 times lower.[6] Occupational skin exposure limits are set at 0.5 ppm

Naracoorte (South Australia) – Chloride

September 5 2016 Naracoorte (South Australia)  Chloride 481mg/L

November 29 2016 Naracoorte (South Australia)  Chloride 445mg/L

March 21 2017 Naracoorte (South Australia)  Chloride 471mg/L

June 13 2017 Naracoorte (South Australia)  Chloride 465mg/L

2018/19: Naracoorte (South Australia) Chloride 478mg/L (max), 461.25mg/L

16/9/19: Naracoorte Chloride 496mg/L (max). 2019/20 av. 483mg/L av.

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Naracoorte (South Australia) – Sodium

5/9/16 Naracoorte  Sodium 319mg/L

29/11/16 Naracoorte Sodium 307mg/L

21/3/17 Naracoorte Sodium 280mg/L

13/6/17 Naracoorte Sodium 309mg/L

2018/19: Naracoorte (South Australia) Sodium 337mg/L (max), 322.25mg/L (av.)

16/3/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Sodium 348mg/L (max), 334.5mg/L (av.)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Naracoorte (South Australia Australia) Iron

20/12/18: Naracoorte (South Australia) Iron 0.6905mg/L (max)

21/1/19: Naracoorte (South Australia) Iron 0.6965mg/L (max)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

Naracoorte (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids

2018/19: Naracoorte (South Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1300mg/L (max), 1297.5mg/L (av)

2019/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 1300mg/L (max), 1282.5mg/L av.


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Naracoorte (South Australia) – Hardness

2018/19: Naracoorte  (South Australia) Hardness as CaCO3 343mg/L (max), 339.75mg/L (mean)

2019/20: Naracoorte (South Australia) Total Hardness as CaCO3 376mg/L (max), 356.5mg/L av.


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Naracoorte (South Australia) Turbidity

2018/19: Naracoorte (Stewart Terrace) – Turbidity 4.9NTU (max), 0.92NTU (av.)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap

Naracoorte (South Australia) – Haloacetonitriles

27/6/22: Naracoorte (South Australia) Dibromoacetonitrile 17.9 ug/L (max) – second highest detection in South Australia 2021/22

Data are inadequate to set guideline values for haloacetonitriles in drinking water
Haloacetonitriles are formed from organic precursors during chlorination or chloramination of drinking water. Concentrations of dihaloacetonitriles reported overseas range up to 0.04 mg/L but are typically  less than 0.003 mg/L. Concentrations of trichloroacetonitrile are less than 0.001 mg/L. Trichloroacetonitrile has been used as an insecticide. No data are available on uses for the other  haloacetonitriles.