2013/17 – North Canberra/Gungahlin (Australian Capital Territory) – E.coli, Plasticiser, Lead, Chlorine

2013/14: North Canberra/Gungahlin (ACT) – E.coli.
2013/14: North Canberra/Gungahlin (ACT). Detection of Escherichia coli in drinking  water (1 MPN/100ml).
On 26 August, Barwon Water was notified of a detection of E. coli and notified DH under
section 22 of the Act. The E. coli was detected in a water quality sample taken the previous
morning from a distribution tank in the Skenes Creek High Level system in the Apollo Bay
locality. The tank supply 5 supply-by-agreement customers.
An investigation was carried out in accordance with Department of Health (DH) guidelines,along with corrective actions which included system review, retesting of the original sample and chlorine dosing followed by sampling.The follow-up samples were free of E. coli and total coliforms. The Department of Health made an assessment requiring Barwon Water to submit a section 18 for noncompliance with the E. coli water quality standard. This was based on not meeting all of the criteria required to claim a false positive outcome. All contributing factors
have been addressed in order to prevent future reoccurrence.

2013/14 + 2016/17 – North Canberra/Gungahlin – Placticiser

2013/14: North Canberra/Gungahlin (ACT) – Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 12ug/L (11ug/L 95th percentile)

2014/15: North Canberra/Gungahlin (ACT) Diethyl phthalate [US EPA 3510/8270] 5ug/L

2016/17: North Canberra/Gungahlin (ACT) – Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [US EPA 8270D] 22ug/L

Icon Water Annual Drinking Water Quality Report 2016/17

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate: Based on health considerations, concentrations in drinking water should not exceed 0.01 mg/L.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate: The data are inadequate to determine a guideline value.
DEHP and DEHA are commonly used plasticisers in flexible polyvinyl chloride products. They may be present in drinking water that has been in contact with these products for long periods of time, or as the result of industrial spills. Overseas studies have detected DEHP in drinking water on a few occasions at concentrations from 0.00005 mg/L (50 ng/L) to 0.01 mg/L. DEHA has been detected at concentrations between 0.000001 mg/L (1 ng/L) to 0.0001 mg/L (100 ng/L) in treated drinking water.
DEHP is the most widely used plasticiser. It is also used as a replacement for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in electrical capacitors. DEHA is used as a lubricant and in hydraulic fluids. Exposure to DEHP and DEHA is widespread because of the broad range of products using these plasticisers. Food is the major source of exposure, and it has been estimated that adult daily intake of DEHP and DEHA, as a result of consumption of food in contact with plastic products, is 0.2 mg to 16 mg.
People receiving kidney dialysis treatment may be exposed to much higher amounts of these plasticisers. In the United States it has been estimated that each dialysis patient could be receiving up to 90 mg of DEHP per treatment.”

2015/16 – North Canberra & Gungahlin (Australian Capital Territory) Lead

2015/16 – North Canberra (Australian Capital Territory) – Lead 12ug/L

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011

2013/14 – North Canberra & Gungahlin (Australian Capital Territory) Chlorine

2013/14: Chlorine Free 6.2mg/L (max), 0.82mg/L (mean)

2013/14: Chlorine Free 8mg/L (max), 0.91mg/L (mean)

Chlorine dissociates in water to form free chlorine, which consists of aqueous molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion. Chlorine and hypochlorites are toxic to microorganisms and are used extensively as disinfectants for drinking water supplies. Chlorine is also used to disinfect sewage and wastewater, swimming pool water, in-plant supplies, and industrial cooling water.

Chlorine has an odour threshold in drinking water of about 0.6 mg/L, but some people are particularly sensitive and can detect amounts as low as 0.2 mg/L. Water authorities may need to exceed the odour threshold value of 0.6 mg/L in order to maintain an effective disinfectant residual.

In the food industry, chlorine and hypochlorites are used for general sanitation and for odour control. Large amounts of chlorine are used in the production of industrial and domestic disinfectants and bleaches, and it is used in the synthesis of a large range of chemical compounds.

Free chlorine reacts with ammonia and certain nitrogen compounds to form combined chlorine. With ammonia, chlorine forms chloramines (monochloramine, dichloramine and nitrogen trichloride or trichloramine) (APHA 2012). Chloramines are used for disinfection but are weaker oxidising agents than free chlorine.

Free chlorine and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously (APHA 2012). The term totalchlorine refers to the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine present in a sample.

Chlorine (Free) ADWG Guideline: 5mg/L (Chlorine in chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L). Chlorine dissociates in water to form free chlorine, which consists of aqueous molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion.

Chlorine (Total) ADWG Guideline 5mg/L (chloraminated supplies 4.1mg/L): The term total chlorine refers to the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine present in a sample